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Daily Archives: March 23, 2011

A. DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO LAYCOS

 

I. Introduction:

Kini nga bahin nagsilbe nga practicum sa training sa mga Layco. Kini nga bahin mahimong gamiton sa actual nga demonstration.

II. Before the Mass (or Bible Service):

1.      Mangabot sa Simbahan 15 minutos saw ala pa ang Misa/Bible Service ug mag-andam na.

2.      Maghugas sa imong mga kamot sa wala pa ang Misa/Bible Service ug dili sa panahon sa panahon sa Communion. Comment: Kini nga action dili liturgical ug walay meaning.

3.      Mangadto sa luyo sa Simbahan ug ubani ang pari u gang ubang ministro alang sa Entrance procession.

III. Procession:

1.      Maglakaw sa likod sa reader nga nagdala sa Book of the Gospels ug una sa pari.

2.      Magyukbo (bow from the waist) atubang sa altar kauban sa pari ug ubang pang mga ministro.

3.      Mangadto sa imong lingkuranan ug magpabilin didto.

 

IV.             During Mass:

Sunda ang kasaulogan ug magparticipate sa mga pag-ampo, tubag ug kanta.

V.                During Communion at Mass:

1.      Saka ug duol sa altar samtang nag-awit sa ‘Kordero sa Dios.’ Ang uban kaninyo magkuha og dugang nga ciborium nga may Blessed Sacrament gikan sa tabernacle ug ibutang kini sa altar ibabaw sa corporal.

2.      Maglinya uban sa ubang mga ministro alang sa pagdawat sa Communion gikan sa pari. Kon ang pari modoul na kanimo ug moingon, “Ang Lawas ni Kristo,” iduko ang imong ulo (slightly) sa pagtahud ug magtubag, “Amen.”

3.      Guniti ang hostiya sa imong tuo nga kamo ug maghulat nga ang pari makahuman sa iyang pagkomunyon (human niya inum sa bino) unya mao pa himoon ang imong Communion.

4.      Kuha og ciborium (gikan sa pari) ug kanaug sa sanctuary. Magpili og lugar kon asa ka pagpakalawat.

5.      Guniti ang ciborium nga may dignidad duol sa imong dughan (chest high). Timan-i nga ikaw nagdala sa Lawas ni Kristo.

6.      Guniti ang ciborium sa imong wala nga kamut ug tabuni ang baba sa ciborium sa imong tuo nga kamot aron dili paliron sa hangin ang hostiya.

7.      Ipakita ang Hostiya sa mangalawat ug klaro nga tingog mag-ingon: “Ang Lawas ni Kristo” dayon ibutang ang hostiya sa iyang dila o kamot human siya makatubag, “Amen.”

8.      (Note: Namatikdan nga ang ubang Layco wala nagasulti sa hustong formula sa pagpakalawat. Ang ilang giingon, “Body of Christ” o “Lawas ni Kristo.” Ang husto nga mga pulong nga angay isulti mao ang, “The Body of Christ” o “Ang Lawas ni Kristo.”)

9.      Himoa nga ang pagpakalawat dili dinalian ug sa kanunay ikaw mahibalo sa solemnidad ug sa dignidad sa imong gimbuhaton. Likayi nga mahimo kini nga mechanical.

10.  Samtang nagaingon ka, “Ang Lawas ni Kristo,” tutoki (eye contact) ang nangalawat. Niining paagiha gihatagan mo ang imong ministriya og usa ka personal touch.

11.  Human sa pagpakalawat dal-on ang ciborium balik sa altar aron iponon ang mga nahibilin nga hostiya ug balhinon sa mas dagko nga sudlanan ug aron mahinloan kini.

12.  Ibalik ang mga may unod ngs sudlanan sa tabernacle, mag-genuflect ug magbalik sa imong lingkuranan.

B.     ANG BIBLE SERVICE: (The Sunday Celebration in the Absence of a Priest)

I. General Principles:

1.      Ang Bible Service gimugna alang sa adlawng Domingo (Sunday) tungod kay and Domingo adlaw sa Ginoo (the Lord’s Day) ug Adlaw nga Igpapahulay.

2.      Ang tuyo sa Bible Service aron nga ang mga tawo makasimba bisan nga walay Misa ug walay pari.

3.      Ang Bible Service ginatugot tungod sa mga hinungdan nga mosunod:

a.       Layo kayo ang kapilya sa centro/poblacion.

b.      Lisod kayo ang sakyanan o walay sakyanan.

c.       Walay Misa nga ginasaulog nga duol lang.

d.      Aron ang mga tawo makatuman sa ilang obligasyon sa pagsimba.

4.      Ang pagsaulog sa Bible Service dili angay nga mahimong mahisama sa Misa o puli sa Misa. Gani walay unang pag-ampo (Opening Prayer), walay offertory procession ug walay Eucharistic Prayer.

5.      Ang pagdumala sa Bible Service dili angay nga mahisama sa pari o puli sa pari. Gani ginadilian ang paggamit sa besti sa pari o mga pulong nga iyaha sa pari sama sa pagsermon, pag-ingon ‘Ang Ginoo maanaa kaninyo’ p “Mag-ampo kita,’ o sa pagsundog sa mga lihok sa pari sama sa pagpataas sa kamut sa pag-ampo ug sa pagbendisyon sa mga tawo.

II. Norms for Bible Service:

Sa wala pa magsugod ang Bible Service iandam ang mosunod:

1.      Ibutang nang daan ang Blessed Sacrament sulod sa tabernaculo. Ipagula lang kini panahon sa pagkalawat.

2.      Ibutang ang balasahon (first reading and second reading) sa lectern. Dili kini iapil sa entrance procession.

3.      Iandam ang altar. Butangan og plain white cloth ibabaw csa altar. Dili bistehan ang altar nga murag catering table.

4.      Dili butangan og candela ug bulak ang altar. Ibutang kini duol sa altar.

5.      Sa pagsugod mahimo nga may entrance procession. Ang order sa entrance procession mao kini: mag-una ang duha ka altar servers nga may dala nga mga kandela, sunod ang reader nga nagdala sa Book of the Gospels, dayon ang uban pang magbabasa, katapusan ang pangulo sa kasaulogan.

6.      Tanan sila moyukbo atubang sa altar (profound bow). Ang magbabasa magpahiluna sa Book of the Gospels ibabaw sa altar.

7.      Walay Una nga Pag-ampo (or Opening Prayer).

8.      Panahon sa Ebanghelyo, ang Pangulo sa Kasaulogan mokuha sa book of the Gospels sa altar ug iyang dad-on ngadto sa lectern. Dili siya motimbaya ug moingon, “Ang Ginoo maanaa kaninyo” sama sa pari.

9.      Human sa pagbasa sa Ebanghelyo, ang Pangulo mopaambit sa iyang pamalandong o sharing bahin sa sa mensahe sa ebanghelyo. Kini dili homily busa likayan nga ang sharing mahimong homily sama sa pari.

10.  Human sa Pangamuyo sa mga Tumotoo, iandam sa Pangulo ang altar pinaagi sa pagbutang sa corporal. Mangluhod ang tanan. Kuhaon sa pangulo ang Santissimo Sacramento gikan sa tabernakulo o sa altar diin kini nahimutang ug ipahiluna kini ibabaw sa altar.

11.  Dayon ibayaw sa Pangulo ang Santissimo Sacramento samtang ang katawhan moawit sa pagsimba o mosimba sa hilum.

12.  Human sa pagsimba sa Santissimo Sacramento, manindog ang tanan ug ang pangulo mag-ampo sa mosunod nga pag-ampo sa pagdayeg ug pasalamat. Ang pangulo dili mobayaw sa iyang mga kamot sama sa pari.

13.  Sa Amahan Namo ang Pangulo ug ang mga katawhan dili mopataas sa ilang mga kamot  nga sama sa pari.

14.  Human sa pagkalawat mahimong awiton ang Awit ni Zacarias. Sunod niini ang Pangulo mopadayag sa pag-ampo. Dili niya ipataas ang iyang mga kamot sama sa pari.

15.  Human sa pag-ampo, manglingkod ang tanan. Niining higayuna, mahimong buhaton ang kolekta ug mga pahibalo. Samtang nagpadayon ang kolekta, mmahimong basahon ang mga pahibalo. Kon walay mga pahibalo, mahimong mag-awit og haum nga awit samtang nagpadayon ang kolekta.

16.  Human sa kolekta ang Pangulo uban sa katawhan, manguros sa pag-ingon, “Manalangin kanato ang Dios nga makagagahum sa tanan, ang Amahan ug ang Anak ug ang Espiritu Santo,” dili siya mohatag og blessing sama sa pari.

17.  Sa katapusan nga bahin ang Pangulo moingon, “Manlakaw kita sa kalinaw aron sa paghigugma ug pag-alagad sa Ginoo.” Dili siya moingon, “Panlakaw kamo….” sama sa pari.

18.  Ang Pangulo ug ang iyang mga katabang moyukbo sa altar ug molakaw samatang nagaawit ang katawhan sa katapusang awit.

Adopted from: Fr. Romeo Buenaobra

(LLLM Updating Seminar Aug 3-4, 2007, St. Francis Retreat Center, Baluan, General Santos City)

Back to: New Modules for Training Laycos


Introduction:

Kini nga bahin naghisgot sa liturgical norms o patakaran (rules, standards) sa pagsaulog sa liturhiya. Ang Simbahan may katungod sa paghimo niining mga patakaran tungod kay siya ang tag-iya sa liturhiya ug nagaatiman niini. Ang patakaran nga Makita sa ubos gikuha sa GIRM (General Instructions on the Roman Missal 2002) ug sa RS (Redemptionis Sacramentum 2004).

The Ministers of Holy Communion According to the GIRM and RS:

1.    Adunay duha ka klase ang Ministers of Holy Communion:

a.    Ordinary Ministers – mao ang Ordained Ministers sama sa: Obispo, pari ug diakono

b.    Extraordinary Ministers – mao ang non-ordained sama sa: Instituted Acolytes, religious men and women ug uban pang lawfully deputed faithful (GIRM 23).

i.    Comment: ang mga Layco ug Lay Eucharistic Ministers apil sa Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion.

2.    Ang mga Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion mga tawo nga gihatagan og tahas/commission. Sila may especial nga papel ug mga buluhaton sa liturhiya sumala sa balaod ug patakaran sa Simbahan (RS 154-156).

i.    Comment: Ang mga Layco ug LEM mga Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion nga gi-commission alang sa especial nga buluhaton sa liturhiya.

3.    Ang papel ug mga buluhaton sa Layco anaa ubos sa atoridad sa Obispo nga maoy nagahimo og mga liturgical norms kon unsaon pagtuman niining mga roles and functions sa iyang Diocese (RS 21).

i.    Comment: Ang awtoridad sa mga Layco nagagikan sa Obispo ug dili sa Parish priest. Ang Obispo maoy nagabuot bahin sa buluhaton ug termino sa mga Layco sa iyang Diocese.

4.    Isip Extraordinary Ministers, ang role and functions sa mga Layco supplementary ug provisional (RS 151). Mahimo silang i-appoint sa usa ka okasyon o temporary lamang depende sa Obispo o sa iyang delegate nga mao ang parish priest.

i.    Ang pagka Layco temporary lamang. Dili ka mahimong Layco hangtud sa kahangturan o sumala sa imong kagustuhan.

5.    Isip liturgical ministers ang tagsa ka Layco motuman sa iyang role and functions nga gi-assign kaniya.

i.    Comment: Apan kon ang ubang mga ministro wala magtungha sa panahon sa Misa, ang Layco mahimo nga magsilbe sa Altar, magbasa sa mga balasahon, mag-awit o magbasa sa Responsorial Psalm ug magbasa sa mga intention sa Prayer of the Faithful. Apan kini nga buluhaton temporary lamang ug alang lang sa niining usa ka okasyon.

Addendum:

Basic Principles for Sacred Vessels:

They should be of noble simplicity and the best companion of genuine art (GIRM 325)

They should be made of materials that are considered to be noble, durable and are well-suited for sacred use (GIRM 326).

Materials for sacred vessels should be suited for to sacred use and do not easily break or deteriorate. This applies to all vessels which hold the hosts such as the paten, the ciborium, the pyx, the monstrance and other things of this kind (GIRM).

The form of the sacred vessels must be suited to the intended liturgical use and is clearly distinguishable from those intended for everyday use (GIRM 332).

NORMS FOR RECEIVING COMMUNION:

1.    Ang mga Layco modulo lang sa altar human nga ang pari maka-communion (GIRM 162).

i.    Comment: Dinhi sa Diocese of Marbel, ang mga Layco mahimo nga mosaka ug modulo sa altar panahon sa sa pagkanta sa “Kordero sa Dios.”

2.    Ang Layco angay nga modawat sa balaan nga hostia gikan sa  mga kamut sa pari o diakono. Kini ihatag sa matag Layco uban sa pag-ingon, “Ang Lawas ni Kristo.”

i.    Comment: Ang Layco moduko sa iyang ulo (simple bow) sa pagtahud uban pagtubag, “Amen.” Dayon iyang dawaton ang hostiya sa iyang mga kamut (Left hand) ug maghulat.

3.    Hulaton sa Layco ang pari nga mahuman sa iyang pagkalawat unya pa siya magkalawat.

i.    Comment: Ang Communion sa pari double species – una ang hostiya, sunod ang bino. Hulaton nga ang pari makahuman inum sa bino gikan sa chalice unya pa niya ibutang ang hostiya sa iyang baba.

4.    Ang Layco angay nga modawat sa sudlanan sa hostiya nga ikalawat gikan sa mga kamut sa pari o diakono (GIRM 162).

i.    Gawas lamang kon may pagtugot sa pari nga nagaMisa.

5.    Dili angay sa mga Layco ang maghatagay sa hostiya sa usag-usa (GIRM 160).

i.    Comment: Gawas lamang kon may pagtugot sa pari.

NORMS FOR GIVING OUT COMMUNION

1.    Ang pagtuman sa mga buluhaton sa mga Layco limitado ug dili automatic. Sila makatabang lamang paghatag communion niining mosunod nga mga okasyon:

a.    Kon walay pari o diakono

b.    Kon ang pari ma-incapacitated ug may hinungdan

c.    Kon daghan kayo ang mangalawat (RS 158)

d.    Kon gikinahanglan gayud

e.    Kon kulang ang pari ug ubang mga sacred ministers (RS 147).

2.    Kon sa ato pa, ang pagsilbe sa mga Layco dili kinahanglanon kun adunay daghan nga mga ordinary ministers  (priests and deacons) aron pagkalawat (RS 157).

a.    Example niini nga mga higayon mao ang Mass of the Holy Chrism sa Semana Santa ug fiesta sa Christ the King sa Diocese asa daghang mga pari nga nagatambong.

3.    Ang Layco dili angay nga maghatag Communion sa mga dili Catolico (non-Catholics) o dili Cristiyano (non-Christians) nga modulo sa pagpangalawat.

4.    Gawas lamang kon may panginahanglan (necessity) o pagdapit kaniya nga ang usa ka Layco mahimong magtabang sa pari nga nagMisa sumala sa balaod sa Simbahan (RS 88).

5.    Kon ang nangalawat nagtindog, angay nga maghatag siya’g katahuran saw ala pa modawat sa Sakramento (RS 90).

6.    Ang usa ka binunyagan nga Catolico nga wala ginadid-I (prohibited) sa balaod sa Simbahan angay nga pakalawaton (RS 91).

7.    Ang Holy Communion mahimo dawaton sa dila o sa kamut. Apan kon adunay risk of profanation, dili kini ihatag sa kamut sa mangalawat (RS 92).

8.    Ang usa ka lay person mahimong mangalawat pg-usab sa usa ka adlaw (more than once on the same day) kon mosimba siya og mopartisipar sa maong Misa (RS 95)

Addendum:

Communion – How many times per day?

The New Code of Canon gave the permission to receive Holy Communion more than once per day. C. 917 says, “a person who has received the Most Holy Eucharist may receive it again (iterum) on the same day only during the celebration of the Eucharist in which the person participates.

However, the meaning of the word ‘again’ (iterum) was to allow a second time but not a third, etc. So, Holy Communion may be received only a second time but not a third time, fourth time or a fifth time on the same day.

Specific Norms for Laycos:

The following norms are to be observed and followed by each Layco. It is suggested that these norms be read by the Layco and put it heart.

Appearance:

1.    Be neatly groomed and dressed. Wear appropriate clothes and shoes for Mass.

2.    For ladies, avoid using heavy perfume or cologne and avoid wearing heavy makeup and distracting jewelries.

Behavior:

1.    Always ‘look alert’ at all times during the Mass or Bible Service

2.    Do not slouch when sitting and do not look around unnecessarily

3.    Participate in the prayers, responses and songs

4.    Avoid talking to one another

5.    Avoid going in and out except in cases of necessity only

6.    Be an example of active participation in the liturgy. Know and join in the prayers, singing and responses in the Mass

Uniform:

1.    Wear the prescribed uniform for Laycos in the Diocese of Marbel

2.    Proper uniform for Men: white shirt with collar or polo barong and black pants with distinctive wooden cross worn at the neck. For women: white dress with distinctive logo or pin cross.

3.    Be sure that the uniform you wear is neat, clean and fits you properly.

Seats:

1.    Be seated in a place specially designated for you either in the sanctuary or with the people

2.    Your seats in the sanctuary must be arranged so that they are clearly distinguished from those of the clergy and other ministers.

3.    Do not seat beside the priest for such place is normally reserved for the priest concelebrant or deacon

4.    During Bible Service, do not sit behind the altar but on the side.

Reminders:

1.    Attend the Mass for which you have been scheduled to serve. Do not come in only when its time to give Communion.

2.    You may receive Communion at every Mass you fully attended. Otherwise, you may not receive Communion if you were not present the whole time.

3.    Approach the altar only at designated time, that is, during the singing of the “Lamb of God” which is done before the Holy Communion.

4.    Wait for the priest to give you the host for Communion. Do not take the host by yourself unless the priest allows you to do so.

5.    Hold the sacred host in your hand and wait until the priest has taken his Communion. Only after the priest has taken Communion that you may take your own Communion.

6.    Wait for the priest to give you the vessel with consecrated host for Communion. Do not get the vessel by yourself unless you are allowed to do so by the priest.

7.    Avoid actions that may look like you are a concelebrant in the Mass like, standing near the priest in the altar or receiving Communion with him.

Special Permissions:

The following functions are allowed in the Diocese of Marbel:

1.    Opening and closing of the tabernacle

2.    Getting sacred vessel with consecrated hosts and putting the vessels back in the tabernacle

3.    Transferring or distribution of consecrated hosts into other vessels before and after Communion

4.    Cleansing or purification of sacred vessels after Communion or after the Mass.

Commissioning:

1.    You need to complete the orientation program for Laycos in order to be admitted to service

2.    When you are ready, you may undergo a simple Rite of Commissioning from the priest delegated by the Bishop.

Adopted from Fr. Romeo Buenaobra

(LLLM Updating Seminar, Aug 3-4, 2007 St. Francis Retreat Center, Baluan, General Santos City)

Back to: New Modules for Training Laycos


Introduction:

 

Kini nga bahin naghisgot sa liturgical norms o patakaran (rules, standards) sa pagsaulog sa liturhiya. Ang Simbahan may katungod sa paghimo niining mga patakaran tungod kay siya ang tag-iya sa liturhiya ug nagaatiman niini. Ang patakaran nga Makita sa ubos gikuha sa GIRM (General Instructions on the Roman Missal 2002) ug sa RS (Redemptionis Sacramentum 2004).

 

 

The Ministers of Holy Communion According to the GIRM and RS:

 

1.    Adunay duha ka klase ang Ministers of Holy Communion:

a.    Ordinary Ministers – mao ang Ordained Ministers sama sa: Obispo, pari ug diakono

b.    Extraordinary Ministers – mao ang non-ordained sama sa: Instituted Acolytes, religious men and women ug uban pang lawfully deputed faithful (GIRM 23).

i.    Comment: ang mga Layco ug Lay Eucharistic Ministers apil sa Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion.

2.    Ang mga Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion mga tawo nga gihatagan og tahas/commission. Sila may especial nga papel ug mga buluhaton sa liturhiya sumala sa balaod ug patakaran sa Simbahan (RS 154-156).

i.    Comment: Ang mga Layco ug LEM mga Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion nga gi-commission alang sa especial nga buluhaton sa liturhiya.

3.    Ang papel ug mga buluhaton sa Layco anaa ubos sa atoridad sa Obispo nga maoy nagahimo og mga liturgical norms kon unsaon pagtuman niining mga roles and functions sa iyang Diocese (RS 21).

i.    Comment: Ang awtoridad sa mga Layco nagagikan sa Obispo ug dili sa Parish priest. Ang Obispo maoy nagabuot bahin sa buluhaton ug termino sa mga Layco sa iyang Diocese.

4.    Isip Extraordinary Ministers, ang role and functions sa mga Layco supplementary ug provisional (RS 151). Mahimo silang i-appoint sa usa ka okasyon o temporary lamang depende sa Obispo o sa iyang delegate nga mao ang parish priest.

i.    Ang pagka Layco temporary lamang. Dili ka mahimong Layco hangtud sa kahangturan o sumala sa imong kagustuhan.

5.    Isip liturgical ministers ang tagsa ka Layco motuman sa iyang role and functions nga gi-assign kaniya.

i.    Comment: Apan kon ang ubang mga ministro wala magtungha sa panahon sa Misa, ang Layco mahimo nga magsilbe sa Altar, magbasa sa mga balasahon, mag-awit o magbasa sa Responsorial Psalm ug magbasa sa mga intention sa Prayer of the Faithful. Apan kini nga buluhaton temporary lamang ug alang lang sa niining usa ka okasyon.

 

 

Addendum:

 

 

Basic Principles for Sacred Vessels:

 

They should be of noble simplicity and the best companion of genuine art (GIRM 325)

They should be made of materials that are considered to be noble, durable and are well-suited for sacred use (GIRM 326).

Materials for sacred vessels should be suited for to sacred use and do not easily break or deteriorate. This applies to all vessels which hold the hosts such as the paten, the ciborium, the pyx, the monstrance and other things of this kind (GIRM).

The form of the sacred vessels must be suited to the intended liturgical use and is clearly distinguishable from those intended for everyday use (GIRM 332).

 

 

NORMS FOR RECEIVING COMMUNION:

 

1.    Ang mga Layco modulo lang sa altar human nga ang pari maka-communion (GIRM 162).

i.    Comment: Dinhi sa Diocese of Marbel, ang mga Layco mahimo nga mosaka ug modulo sa altar panahon sa sa pagkanta sa “Kordero sa Dios.”

2.    Ang Layco angay nga modawat sa balaan nga hostia gikan sa  mga kamut sa pari o diakono. Kini ihatag sa matag Layco uban sa pag-ingon, “Ang Lawas ni Kristo.”

i.    Comment: Ang Layco moduko sa iyang ulo (simple bow) sa pagtahud uban pagtubag, “Amen.” Dayon iyang dawaton ang hostiya sa iyang mga kamut (Left hand) ug maghulat.

3.    Hulaton sa Layco ang pari nga mahuman sa iyang pagkalawat unya pa siya magkalawat.

i.    Comment: Ang Communion sa pari double species – una ang hostiya, sunod ang bino. Hulaton nga ang pari makahuman inum sa bino gikan sa chalice unya pa niya ibutang ang hostiya sa iyang baba.

4.    Ang Layco angay nga modawat sa sudlanan sa hostiya nga ikalawat gikan sa mga kamut sa pari o diakono (GIRM 162).

i.    Gawas lamang kon may pagtugot sa pari nga nagaMisa.

5.    Dili angay sa mga Layco ang maghatagay sa hostiya sa usag-usa (GIRM 160).

i.    Comment: Gawas lamang kon may pagtugot sa pari.

 

 

 

NORMS FOR GIVING OUT COMMUNION

 

1.    Ang pagtuman sa mga buluhaton sa mga Layco limitado ug dili automatic. Sila makatabang lamang paghatag communion niining mosunod nga mga okasyon:

 

a.    Kon walay pari o diakono

b.    Kon ang pari ma-incapacitated ug may hinungdan

c.    Kon daghan kayo ang mangalawat (RS 158)

d.    Kon gikinahanglan gayud

e.    Kon kulang ang pari ug ubang mga sacred ministers (RS 147).

 

2.    Kon sa ato pa, ang pagsilbe sa mga Layco dili kinahanglanon kun adunay daghan nga mga ordinary ministers  (priests and deacons) aron pagkalawat (RS 157).

a.    Example niini nga mga higayon mao ang Mass of the Holy Chrism sa Semana Santa ug fiesta sa Christ the King sa Diocese asa daghang mga pari nga nagatambong.

3.    Ang Layco dili angay nga maghatag Communion sa mga dili Catolico (non-Catholics) o dili Cristiyano (non-Christians) nga modulo sa pagpangalawat.

4.    Gawas lamang kon may panginahanglan (necessity) o pagdapit kaniya nga ang usa ka Layco mahimong magtabang sa pari nga nagMisa sumala sa balaod sa Simbahan (RS 88).

5.    Kon ang nangalawat nagtindog, angay nga maghatag siya’g katahuran saw ala pa modawat sa Sakramento (RS 90).

6.    Ang usa ka binunyagan nga Catolico nga wala ginadid-I (prohibited) sa balaod sa Simbahan angay nga pakalawaton (RS 91).

7.    Ang Holy Communion mahimo dawaton sa dila o sa kamut. Apan kon adunay risk of profanation, dili kini ihatag sa kamut sa mangalawat (RS 92).

8.    Ang usa ka lay person mahimong mangalawat pg-usab sa usa ka adlaw (more than once on the same day) kon mosimba siya og mopartisipar sa maong Misa (RS 95)

 

 

Addendum:

 

Communion – How many times per day?

 

The New Code of Canon gave the permission to receive Holy Communion more than once per day. C. 917 says, “a person who has received the Most Holy Eucharist may receive it again (iterum) on the same day only during the celebration of the Eucharist in which the person participates.

However, the meaning of the word ‘again’ (iterum) was to allow a second time but not a third, etc. So, Holy Communion may be received only a second time but not a third time, fourth time or a fifth time on the same day.

 

 

Specific Norms for Laycos:

 

The following norms are to be observed and followed by each Layco. It is suggested that these norms be read by the Layco and put it heart.

 

Appearance:

 

1.    Be neatly groomed and dressed. Wear appropriate clothes and shoes for Mass.

2.    For ladies, avoid using heavy perfume or cologne and avoid wearing heavy makeup and distracting jewelries.

 

Behavior:

 

1.    Always ‘look alert’ at all times during the Mass or Bible Service

2.    Do not slouch when sitting and do not look around unnecessarily

3.    Participate in the prayers, responses and songs

4.    Avoid talking to one another

5.    Avoid going in and out except in cases of necessity only

6.    Be an example of active participation in the liturgy. Know and join in the prayers, singing and responses in the Mass

 

Uniform:

 

1.    Wear the prescribed uniform for Laycos in the Diocese of Marbel

2.    Proper uniform for Men: white shirt with collar or polo barong and black pants with distinctive wooden cross worn at the neck. For women: white dress with distinctive logo or pin cross.

3.    Be sure that the uniform you wear is neat, clean and fits you properly.

 

Seats:

 

1.    Be seated in a place specially designated for you either in the sanctuary or with the people

2.    Your seats in the sanctuary must be arranged so that they are clearly distinguished from those of the clergy and other ministers.

3.    Do not seat beside the priest for such place is normally reserved for the priest concelebrant or deacon

4.    During Bible Service, do not sit behind the altar but on the side.

 

Reminders:

 

1.    Attend the Mass for which you have been scheduled to serve. Do not come in only when its time to give Communion.

2.    You may receive Communion at every Mass you fully attended. Otherwise, you may not receive Communion if you were not present the whole time.

3.    Approach the altar only at designated time, that is, during the singing of the “Lamb of God” which is done before the Holy Communion.

4.    Wait for the priest to give you the host for Communion. Do not take the host by yourself unless the priest allows you to do so.

5.    Hold the sacred host in your hand and wait until the priest has taken his Communion. Only after the priest has taken Communion that you may take your own Communion.

6.    Wait for the priest to give you the vessel with consecrated host for Communion. Do not get the vessel by yourself unless you are allowed to do so by the priest.

7.    Avoid actions that may look like you are a concelebrant in the Mass like, standing near the priest in the altar or receiving Communion with him.

 

Special Permissions:

 

The following functions are allowed in the Diocese of Marbel:

 

1.    Opening and closing of the tabernacle

2.    Getting sacred vessel with consecrated hosts and putting the vessels back in the tabernacle

3.    Transferring or distribution of consecrated hosts into other vessels before and after Communion

4.    Cleansing or purification of sacred vessels after Communion or after the Mass.

 

Commissioning:

 

1.    You need to complete the orientation program for Laycos in order to be admitted to service

2.    When you are ready, you may undergo a simple Rite of Commissioning from the priest delegated by the Bishop.

 

 

 

Adopted from Fr. Romeo Buenaobra

(LLLM Updating Seminar, Aug 3-4, 2007 St. Francis Retreat Center, Baluan, General Santos City)


Introduction:

Kini nga lecture may tulo ka bahin: Part I: Diocesan Policies and Guidelines on Laycos; Part II: Roles and Functions of Laycos in GIRM 2002 and RS 2004 ug Part III: Detailed Instructions for Laycos

Part I: Diocesan Policies and Guidelines on Laycos

 

DIOCESAN POLICIES AND GUIDELINES:

 

1.    Ang pagka-Layco usa ka especial nga ministriya, nga gimugna sa Romakaniadtong early 70s, officially commissioned, with specified uniform prescribed by the Bishop

2.    Ang ilang mga buluhaton gi-specify usab sa Bishop – Ang pagtabang paghatag og Communion, pagpreside sa Bible Service ug pagsaulog sa sacramental nga gitugot sa Obispo

3.    Ang Bible Service ginatugot lang kon Domingo ug mga Holydays of Obligations. Ang Bible Service sa uban nga adlaw nanginahanglan og pagtugot sa Parish Priest sama sa: Bible Service novena, Bible Service for the Dead ug uban pa.

4.    Ang bag-o nga Bible Service Guide maoy angay gamiton alang sa pagsaulog sa Bible Service.

5.    Kadto lamang kasaulogan nga wala Communion (Wake Service) ang gitugot alang sa Bihilya sa patay ug lubong.

6.    Ang pag-atiman sa Holy Eucharist. Iuli sa Layco ang sobra nga hostia sa Simbahan sa Parokya. Dili ginatugot ang pagtago o pagtigum sa Eukaristiya sa balay o sa dili seguro nga lugar.

Qualifications of a Layco:

1.    Witnessing Catholic with pleasing personality

2.    Physically, intellectually, spiritually and emotionally fit

3.    Must be at least twenty to sixty five years to age

4.    Be a resident of the parish he/she intends to serve

5.    Has ability to read, write and communicate

6.    Approved by the Parish Priest and the PPC

7.    Possesses basic knowledge of the Creed, Code and Cult

8.    Understands and accepts the principles and processes of BEC

9.    Has satisfactorily fulfilled the required training/seminars

10. Has time and willing to work towards the realization of the Vision-Mission-Thrust (VMT) of the Diocese of Marbel.

Rights and Privileges of the Laycos:

1.    Ang mga Layco may katungod sa suporta financial ug moral sa ilang GKK kon sila mokuha sa Blessed Sacrament sa poblacion/parokya, motambong sa meeting, seminar, recollections ug uban pang kalihokan sa ilang ministriya sa parokya.

2.    Sila may katungod sa financial support sa ilang parokya kon sila motambong sa diocesan meeting, seminar, retreat ug recollections.

3.    Sila may katungod sa financial support sa diocese kun sila ipadala sa official mission diocese.

Renewal of Laycos:

1.    Ang mga nakomisyon nga mga Layco kinahanglan nga morenew sa ilang commitment matag duha ka tuig.

2.    Ang mga nakomisyon nga mga Layco kinahanglan nga mosubmit sa ilang written application for renewal sa parish priest usa ka bulan saw ala pa mo-expire ang ilang komisyon.

3.    Kini nga renewal pangunahan sa usa ka recollection o retreat

Prohibitions and Sanctions of a Layco:

1.    Ang mga Layco ginadilian sa pag-apil sa mga religious fanatical groups o mga grupo nga wala aprobahe sa Diocese ug sa ilang Parish

2.    Sila man ginadilian sa pag-advocate sa violente nga pamaagi

3.    Kadtong molapas niining mga provisions papahawaon human ang imbistigasyon ug due process.

Cessation of Functions of a Layco:

Ang usa ka Layco mahimo nga paundangon o disiplinahon tungod niining mga hinungdan:

1.    Habitual absence sa mga na-schedule nga mga meeting ug pagpabaya sa iyang tulumanon.

2.    Expiration sa iyang term of office o commission

3.    Non-renewal sa iyang term o commission gawas kon ang iyang termino gi-extend sa parish priest apan sulod sa tulo ka bulan lamang

4.    Permanent incapacity

5.    Voluntary resignation ug kini gidawat sa parish priest

6.    Obligatory resignation tungod sa candidacy for an elective position

7.    Dismissal due to grave causes and loss of confidence as determined by the Parish priest

Re-admission of a Layco:

1.    Ang usa ka Layco mahimo nga pabalikon kon siya makatuman sa mga requirements ug mga qualification for readmission.

Jurisdiction of Service of a Layco:

1.    Ang mga layco moalagad lamang sulod sa diocese ug sa ilang parokya

2.    Aron sa pagsilbe sa laing diocese o parish, kinahanglan mangayo sila og permiso sa Obispo o sa ilangparish priest

Laycos and the Association of Lay Liturgical Leaders (ALLL):

1.    Ang tanang Layco miembro sa Association of Lay Liturgical Leaders (ALLL) in the Diocese of Marbel.

2.    Ang Asosasyon nagabuhat og Diocesan General Assembly makausa sa duha ka tuig. Matag Layco ginadapit sa pagtambong sa maong general assembly

 

 

Part II: Roles and Functions of Laycos in GIRM 2002 and RS 2004

Ang Layco may Tulo ka Main Roles:

1)    As Presider during the Bible Service, ang Layco:

  • Is always punctual and starts Bible Service on time
  • Always comes prepared
  • Uses the New Bible Service Guide
  • Follows strictly the rite of the new Bible Service Guide
  • Is well-prepared and proficient in Sharing (Paambit)
  • Used approved style in Sharing
  • Applies the message of the Gospel to current situations
  • Ask permission when holding Bible Service outside Sunday
  • Conducts Bible Service only in approved chapels

2)    As Extraordinary Minister of Holy Communion, ang Layco

  • Regularly helps in distributing Holy Communion
  • Takes good care of the Blessed Sacrament
  • Shows respect and reverence to the Blessed Sacrament
  • Observes faithfully the norms of liturgy as found in the GIRM

3)    As Member of the Parish LLL Ministry, ang Layco

  • Attends regularly at meetings of his ministry
  • Maintains good relationship with other Laycos in the parish
  • Has dedication and sense of pride in his work as Layco
  • Has appreciation of his role and mission as Layco
  • Coordinates with other ministries and groups in t he parish

Others Roles of a Layco:

  • Sila mga liturgical ministers nga adunay special authorization gikan sa Obispo sa Diocese.
  • Ang ilang servicio nakadugang sa orderly ug prayerful nga kinaiya sa simbahan
  • Sila nakatabang sa solemnity, grace ug reverence sa liturhiya
  • Sila maoy modelo ngadto sa katawhan sa maayong partisipasyon sa liturhiya pinaagi sa ilang mga lihok, pag-ampo, pag-apil sa mga kanta ug mga tubag.
  • Ang ilang servicio boluntaryo, ilang kabubut-on nga walay bayad.

Duties and Functions of a Layco:

Duties:

  • Ang pagreport 15-minutes saw ala pa ang Misa o Bible Service
  • Ang pagtambong sa mga meeting sa iyang ministriya
  • Ang pagtan-aw sa iyang scheduled assignment ug paghinumdum niini
  • Ang pagpangita og mopuli kaniya (replacement) kun dili siya makatuman sa iyang assignment.

Functions:

  • Ang pagsaulog sa Bible Service sa GKK kun Domingo ug Holydays of Obligations
  • Ang pagtabang pakalawat sa katawhan sa panahon sa Misa o Bible Service
  • Ang pagpaambit (o sharing) sa iyang personal nga pamalandong (personal reflection) panahon sa Bible Service.
  • Ang pag-atiman pag-ayo sa Blessed Sacrament samtang kini anaa sa iyang pagdumala.

Uban pang mga Functions sumala sa sugo ug kabubut-on sa Parish Priest:

  • Ang pagdala’g Communion sa mga masakiton sa hospital, balay ug pagdala’g Viaticum sa himalatyon.
  • And pagbadlis (impose ashes) panahon sa Ash Wednesday ug pagtabang pahalok sa krus sa Viernes Santo.
  • Ang pagdumala sa Prayer Vigil alang sa minatay

o   Note: Kini dili Bible Service busa mahimo usab kini buhaton sa mga dili Layco sama sa Katekista, Lay Liturgist, Family and Life Worker ug uban pa

  • Ang pagbendita sa mga butang nga gitugot sa mga lay liturgical ministers sama sa: minatay, lubnganan, balay, sakyanan

o   Note: Dili sila magbendita sa mga butang nga pari lang ang makahimo.

 

Addendum:

What is a Blessing?

A Blessing is a good conferred by a higher personage on a lower personage. All true blessings come from God but they may also come through those whom He has placed over others.

In the family, parents bless their children, as God has given them natural authority over their children. In the Church spiritual blessings are conferred in God’s name by those to whom He has given spiritual authority over His people.

Who can bless?

According to Canon Law 1169, blessings can be conferred by those who are ordained. Most blessings are conferred by priests. Some are reserved to Bishops like: Consecrations and Dedications. Some can be conferred by deacons but only those that are allowed by law and by the ritual books.

Simple blessings can be done by lay liturgical ministers with special permission of the bishop. Such blessings maybe given using duly authorized prayers and rituals and by using objects previously blessed by the ordained.

Responsibilities of a Layco:

  • Ang pagpakita og angayang respeto ug pagtahud sa Eukaristiya
  • Ang pagtrabaho nga may koordinasyon kauban sa Obispo ug kaparian
  • Ang pagsaksi ug paghatag sa maayong panig-ingnan ug maayong pamatasan ngadto sa uban
  • Ang pagpakita sa gugma ug pagtagad sa isigkaingon.

Proceso sa pagpili og Layco:

1.    Ang Parish Priest moimbitar sa ubang grupo ug mga leaders sa parokya kun kinsa ang pillion nga mga kandidato sa pagka-Layco.

2.    Kadtong mga napilian pahibal-on ug imbitahon. Ang kandidato nga modawat ug may pagtugot sa iyang pamilya maoy mopartisipar sa training

 

Training and Formation of Laycos:

1.    Ang mga kandidato sa pagka-Layco pagahatagan og basic knowledge bahin sa theological, spiritual, liturgical ug practical nga preparasyon aron pagtuman sa ilang papel ug mga buluhaton nga may kaalam ug pagtahud.

2.    Sa samang paagi sila usab hatagan og on-going formation program bahin sa upat ka area sa formation: human, spiritual, intellectual ug pastoral aron tabangan sila paglambo sa ilang personal nga kinabuhi ug ministriya.

3.    Kini nga formation igahatag sa ilang kaugalingong  ministriya diha sa diocesan ug parish level.

Adapted from: Fr. Roming Buenaobra’s talk, Re: LLLM Updating Seminar (Aug 3-4, 2007)

Back to: New Modules for Training Laycos


Goals:

1.      Aron ang mga partisipante makakat-on sa kalambigitan tali sa Pag-ampo, Pagsimba ug Liturhiya

2.      Paghatag sa mga partisipante og kinatibuk-ang kahibalo mahitungod sa Liturhiya. Ang pagtoon sa liturhiya kumplikado nga butang ug nanginahanglan og dakong panahon ug tinguha. Tungod sa limitasyon sa panahon ang ato lamang makuha niining seminar mao ang general overview sa liturhiya.

3.      Aron nga sila adunay tataw nga pagsabot sa mga prinsipyo sa pagbag-o sa litruhiya sumala sa Vatican II

4.      Other goals:

a.       Aron ang mga partisipante mahibalo sa basic theory ug mga practices sa liturhiya

b.      Aron ang mga partisipante mahibalo pag-apply sa ilang natun-an diha sa ilang kinabuhi ug alang sa pag-promote sa liturhiya

c.       Aron ang mga partisipante mahibalo magtransmit sa ilang natun-an ngadto sa ubang bang mga liturgists.

References:

1.      LLM Seminar on Liturgical Arts, Rites and Music byFr. Romeo Buenaobra

February 16-17, 2007 Lagao Parish Hall

Lagao, General Santos City

2.      LLLM Seminar on Basic LiturgybyFr. Romeo Buenaobra

May 16-17, 2008 – Holy Cross Spiritual Center

Calumpang, General Santos City

3.      Parish-Based Formation Program for Volunteer Catechists, Courses in Christian Worship (Vol. 3; published by Center for Catechetics and Evangelization, Communication Foundation for Asia, Manila 2004)

4.      Tamdanan alang sa Basic Liturgy Seminary, Revised Cebuano Edition by the Archdiocesan Liturgical Center (published in Davao City, 1996)

Introduction:

 

Sa pagsugod nato niining maong lecture, tukion nato ang kalambigitan tali sa Pag-ampo, Pagsimba ug Liturhiya. Sugdan nato kini pinaagi niining mosunod nga Aktibidades.

I. Opening Activity:

II. Content Outline:

Part I: Ang Pag-ampo

A.    Unsa ang Pag-ampo?

III. Content Exposition:

 

A. Situating:

Opening Activity: Small Group Discussion – “Ang Aking Pinakamahalagang Ugaling Pilipino (Filipino Values)”

List down Ten Common Filipino Values which are familiar to all and let the participants rate these values according to its importance. Write 1 to the Most Important up to 10 to the Least Important.

_______pakikisama (harmony-oriented)

_______hospitality (pagmamagandang-loob)

_______pyestahan (celebration)

_______galang (respect)

_______mapang-likha (Filipino ingenuity)

_______utang-na-loob (sense of indebtedness)

_______familism (family-oriented)

_______region-oriented (regionalism)

_______”bahala na ang Dios” (trust for God’s mercy)

_______gaya-gaya (imitative)

B. Deepening and Purifying of Responses:

1.      Etymology

“Value” comes from the Latin verb ‘valere’ which means to be “strong” and “vigorous.” It refers to quality which proceeds from a high degree of physical energy. To be valere, therefore, is to possess the vigor and power to do a specific thing which give rise to an urgent demand to have it. Anything that we hold important to life (things, persons, ideas, goals) which enables us to be understood,, evaluated and directed, are values. Values are ideals and principles by which anyone lives. Whatever a person actually likes, prizes esteems, desires, approves and enjoys at any time is his/her values.

2. Ang atong Pagka-espirituhanon

Kitang mga Pilipino nailhan sa atong pagka-espirituhanon tungod sa pagkaabli nato sa pagtoo bahin sa mga butang balaan. Dayag kini diha sa atong pagkamahiligon sa mga relihiyosong kasaulogan sama sa pyesta sa patron, procession, novena ug uban pang matang sa debosyon nga ginahimo sa tinagsa o katilingbanon. Ang pangutana mao kini: Nasayud ba gayud kita sa atong ginahimo ug ngano nga kini atong ginahimo?

3. Ang Panagbangi tali sa atong Pagkamaampoon sa atong Inadlaw-adlaw nga Pagkinabuhi

Laing kamatuoran sa atong kinabuhi sa pag-ampo mao ang kalambigitan niini diha sa atong inadlaw-adlaw nga kinabuhi. Kun ako mangutana kaninyo: “Unsaon man ninyo pagkadawat sa grasya sa Dios?” (Hatagan ang mga partisipante og higayon sa pagtubag sa maong pangutana)

Diha sa inyong mga tubag mamatikdan nato anga ang kadaghanan miingon nga ang grasya sa Dios maangkon pinaagi sa pag-ampo ug pagdawat sa mga sakramento. Gamay ra ang moingon nga maangkon nato ang grasya sa Dios pinaagi sa paghimo og mga buhat sa gugma ug pag-alagad sa uban. Dinhi atong mamatikdan nga layo kayo ang kalambigitan tali sa atong kinabuhi sa pag-ampo diha sa atong inadlaw-adlaw nga pagkinabuhi; tali sa atong pagtoo ug sa atong pagpanghukom.

4.      Kalibog tali sa mga Debosyon ug Liturhiya

Laing kamatuoran sa atong kinabuhi sa pag-ampo mao ang kalibog tali sa mga debosyon ug liturhiya. Madungog nato nga dunay moingon, “Ginadili ang pagrosaryo panahon sa Misa.” Sagad moabot sa atong hunahuna, “Unsa may dautan niana nga pag-ampo man gihapon kana? Unsa may kalainan sa tinagsa ug katilingbanong pag-ampo? Unsay kalambigitan tali sa pag-ampo, pagsimba ug liturhiya?”

Gumikan niining maong mga kalibog, atong tukion karon ang mahitungod sa Pag-ampo, Pagsimba ug Liturhiya. Akong panghinauot nga kining maong lecture magtabang kaninyo sa pagdiskubri sa kalambigitan niini sa usa’g usa aron nga himoon nato kini nga nasabtan, aktibo ug magmabangahon.

IV. Doctrinal Input:

A. Proclamation of the Christian Message

Part I: ANG PAG-AMPO

 

 

A. UNSA ANG PAG-AMPO?

Walay eksaktong kahulugan gyud niini tungod kay Pag-ampo usa ka tinagsa (personal) nga buhat ug magkalahi kini sumala sa nasinatian sa matag tawo. gitoohan usab nato nga ang Dios nakigrelasyon kanato pinaagi sa paghimo kanato nga iyang sinagop nga mga anak. Ang maong Dios nagtawag kanato sa pakiglambigit kaniya sa pagtoo, paglaum ug paghigugma. Kining tinagsa nato nga pagpakigmabigit sa Dios gitawag nga Pag-ampo. Hinungdan nga dulot sa atong kinahiladman ang kinaiya sa pagkamaampoon o sa laing pagkasulti, ang pagkahilambigit sa Dios. Tungod niini nagkinahanglan kita sa Pag-ampo.

Sa atong Pagkamainampoon masinati nato kining pipila ka mga kamatuoran – nga kini usa ka:

  • kinaugalingong pagpakiglambigit sa Dios, atong mahigugmaong Amahan pinaagi ni Kristo diha sa Espiritu Santo
  • nga kining maong pagpakiglambigit sa Dios pakiglambigit usab nato sa katilingban, ang Simbahan, Lawas ni Kristo nga nahasentro sa tald kan-anan, sa lamesa sa pasalamat o Eukaristiya
  • ug nga kining panaglambigit usa ka paglakbay sa pagtoo, paglaum og mahigugmaong pag-alagad sa isigkaingon.

B. MGA TIPO SA PAG-AMPO

Ang pag-ampo nagagikan sa kinahiladman (“kalooban”) nga gidasig sa Espiritu Santo. Kini ang kinabuhi sa atong kasingkasing ug kalag nga gihataga’g kinabuhi sa Espiritu. Ug isip mga anak sa Dios ang atong Pag-ampo usa ka:

  • Pagsimba o Pagpasindungog sa atong Magbubuhat
  • Pagpasalamat sa Amahan
  • Pagpangayo sa atong gikinahanglan sa kinabuhi
  • Pagbasol sa atong mga sala alang sa kapasayloan sa atong Manunubos ug
  • Paghalad Kaniya sa atong kinatibuk-ang pagkatawo, sa atong hunahuna, pulong ug buhat.

C. MGA ANG-ANG SA PAG-AMPO

a.       Kinaugalingon nga Pag-ampo sama sa: Pagrosaryo, Pagnovena, mga debosyon, ug uban pa.

b.      Katilingbanon o Liturhiyanhong Pag-ampo

Kining duha ka ang-ang sa Pag-ampo kinahanglanon (necessary) alang sa tinuod nga kristohanong kinabuhi sa pag-ampo. Sa matag tinagsa o kinaugalingon nga pag-ampo anaa gayud kining katilingbanon nga pag-ampo. Kini atong masinati diha mismo sa pag-ampo ni Kristo. Ang tanan niyang buhat sa pag-ampo iyang gihimo alang sa uban ug alang sa kalampusan Iyang misyon. Ang Iyang pagkamaampoon dili layo o bulag sa iyang misyon sa pagsangyaw sa pagkaanaa sa Gingharian sa Dios. Ang iyang katilingbanong buhat nagpadayag sa iyang kahiladman, sa iyang kagawasan ug sa kalawom sa iyang personal nga pagkahilambigit sa Amahan. Pananglitan niini mao ang Iyang pagtulon-an sa Nazareth (Lukas 4:18ff); ang iyang paghinlo sa Templo (Juan 2:13ff); u gang iyang katapusang panihapon uban sa mga apostoles. Ang “Amahan Namo” usa ka pag-ampo nga adunay pagkakatilingbanon apan anaa usab ang timaan sa kinaugalingon ug lawom nga pakiglambigit sa Dios Amahan.

 

 

 

Part II: ANG PAGSIMBA

A. UNSA ANG PAGSIMBA

Sa atong pag-apil sa mga buhat Pagsimba, sagad kitang nagaawit, “Himaya s adios didto sa langit….nagaasimba kami kanimo….nagadayeg kami kanimo….” Apan ang pangutana mao kini: Unsa man diay ang Pagsimba?

Ang Pagsimba usa ka kinatibuk-ang pamaagi sa tawo sa pag-ila sa pagkaanaa sa Dios ingon nga Dios nga gamhananm, magbubuhat, manggihatagon, Amahan, katingalahan, ug uban pa. sa atong pa ang Pagsimba naglangkob sa:

  • Mahigugmaong pagdayeg sa usa ka buhing Dios
  • Pagpasalamat sa mga gasa ilabina sa gasa sa kaluwasan diha kang Kristo
  • Pagpadayag sa panginahanglan sa tawo sa Dios ug sa iyang ingon nga tawo

B. DUHA KA ASPETO SA PAGSIMBA

Ang Pagsimba usab adunay Duha ka Aspeto:

1.      Kinahiladmang Kinaiya o sa English pa, Inner Attitude. Kini mao ang atong tubag sa Dios nga naghagit kanato sa kinatibuk-an ug kinasingkasing nga pagtoo kaniya ug pagpuyo sa kinabuhi sumala sa iyang kabubot-on. Ang pagsimba dili lamang pulong nga gikan sa baba apan mga buhat nga naggikan sa kinahiladman sa kasingkasing…ang pagbuhat og mayo ug pagpatunhay sa hustisya ilabina sa mga gidaogdaog (cf. Is. 1:11-17; Amos 5:21-30).

2.      Makitang Pagpadayag, o sa English pa, Outward expression. Kini mao ang aspeto sa pagsimba ngamakita og dayag diha sa mga timaan, sa lihok, sayaw, pulong, musika, mga butang, paanindot ug bisan ang pagpamalandong. Ato kining nailhan ug gitawag nga seremonyas o ritwal. Ang seremonyas o ritwal gilangkoban ning mga mosunod nga element:

a.       Paghandum (Remembering): Diha sa pagsimba gihandum ang mga katingalahang buhat sa Dios sa kaluwasan nato nga iyang katawhan, diin sa maong paghandum atong masinati ang iyang makaluwasnong buhat diha sa atong kasamtangan nga sitwasyon ug pinaagi niini kahatagan kita’g giya unsaon pagpuyo sa atong kinabuhi isip tawo ug katilingban.

b.      Pagsaulog (Repetitive and Celebrative): Diha sa pagsimba ang mga katingalahang buhat sa Dios sa atong kaluwasan atong ginabalik-balik pagsaulog aron sa ingon masinati nato kanunay ang iyang gugma ug kayo diha sa tanang bililhong hitabo sa atong kinabuhi. Panglitan niini mao – diha sa Bunyag gisaulog nato ang kinabuhi, sa Santos nga Misa o Eukaristiya, ang iyang pag-atiman ug pagpakaon kanato, ug diha sa paglubong, ang kahulugan sa kamatayon.

c.       Pagkamakahuluganon (Symbolic): Ang pagsimba usa ka buhat nga magdala kanato sa presensya sa pagkaanaa o buhat sa Dios ug tungod niini aduna kini’y gahum nga makapausab sa magsisimba. Diha sa pagsimba madala kita ngadto sa Dios nga nahigugma kanato pinaagi sa kahulugan sa mga simbolo o timaan nga gigamit. Pananglitan – ang tubig nga gigamit sa Bunyag magdala kanato ngadto sa pag-ambit sa kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw ni Kristo.

 

Ang Pagsimba mahimong Tinagsa ug Pribado. Apan kasagaran kini usa ka katilingbanong buhat nga sagad usab giaprobahan sa namunoan sa Simbahan. Tungod niini nahimo kining pormal ug opisyal nga pagsimba sa katawhan sa Dios pinaagi ni Kristo ug matawag nato nga “Liturhiya,” (Sacrosanctum Concilium 5). Dili lamang kini tubag sa atong pag-ila sa pagkaanaa (existence) sa Ginoo, apan buot usab niini nga mahilambigit ug mahiusa kita sa Dios diha ug pinaagi ni Kristo, (cf. Rom 8:8-11).

Kasagaran ang pulong ‘Pagsimba’ mailis-ilissa pulong, ‘Liturhiya.’ Ang batakang lagda sa liturhiya (Constitution on Sacred Liturgy) no. 5, naghulagway sa liturhiya ingon nga pormal ug katilingbanon o publikong pagsimba sa Dios diha ug pinaagi ni Kristo. Apan kun atong susihon pag-ayo, masinati nato nga ang pagsimba mao kadtong bahin sa liturhiya nga nagpadayag sa atong pakiglambigit sa Dios (Upward movement/dimension) diha sa bisan unsang liturhikanhong buluhaton. Sa laing bahin, ang Liturhiya naglangkob dili lamang sa atong pakiglambigit s adios kondili usab sa pakiglambigit sa Dios dinhi kanato (Downward movement/dimension) nga dayag sa mga kaayuhan nga iyang gihimo dinhi kanato pinaagi ug diha ni Kristo. Hinungdan nga kita nga nakasinati sa kayo sa Dios mingtubag niini diha sa atong buhat sa pagsimba Kaniya kun diin misulod kita sa usa ka buhat sa hiniusang pagpakiglambigit Kaniya nga atong Dios.

Ug karon atong hisgutan pag-ayo ang mahitungod sa liturhiya.

Part III: ANG LITURHIYA

 

 

A. UNSA ANG LITURHIYA?

 

 

Note: Dinhi atong tun-an ang history ug development sa pulong, “liturhiya,” ang gitudlo sa Simbahan bahin sa liturhiya, ang LiturgicalAassembly, Participation in the Liturgy ug mga Liturgical Ministers.

I. History and Development of the Meaning of Liturgy – from Secular to Cultic (religious) Meaning

 

1.      Liturgy (leitourgia) is a Greek composite word meaning originally a public duty, a service to the state undertaken by a citizen. Its elements are leitos (from leos = laos, people) meaning public, and ergo (obsolete in the present stem, used in future erxo, etc.), to do. From this we have leitourgos, “a man who performs a public duty”, “a public servant”, often used as equivalent to the Roman lictor; then leitourgeo, “to do such a duty”, leitourgema, its performance, and leitourgia, the public duty itself.

2.      At Athens the leitourgia was the public service performed by the wealthier citizens at their own expense, such as the office of gymnasiarch, who superintended the gymnasium, that of choregus, who paid the singers of a chorus in the theatre, that of the hestiator, who gave a banquet to his tribe, of the trierarchus, who provided a warship for the state. The meaning of the word liturgy is then extended to cover any general service of a public kind. In the Septuagint it (and the verb leitourgeo) is used for the public service of the temple (e.g., Exodus 38:27; 39:12, etc.). Thence it comes to have a religious sense as the function of the priests, the ritual service of the temple (e.g., Joel 1:9, 2:17, etc.). In the New Testament this religious meaning has become definitely established. In Luke 1:23, Zachary goes home when “the days of his liturgy” (ai hemerai tes leitourgias autou) are over. In Hebrews 8:6, the high priest of the New Law “has obtained a better liturgy“, that is a better kind of public religious service than that of the Temple.

3.      Sa ato pa, ang pulong, “liturhiya” naggikan sa Griyegong punulongan nga leitourgia nga ang buot ipasabot “public works” o “public services” alang sa katawhan. Kini usa sa mga obligasyon sa mga public officials sa gobyerno. Ang leitourgia apil ang mga pormal nga seremonyas sa usa ka opisyal, mga proyekto sa gobyerno, mga kalingawan ug bisan gani pagpakaon sa mga tawo.

4.      Sa mga duha ka siglo sa wala pa si Kristo ang pulongleitourgia nag-angkon og bag-o nga kahulugan. Kini gigamit alang sa opisyal nga mga tulumanon sa mga kaparian ug mga Levita sa worship services sa Jerusalem temple.

5.      Sa bag-o pa ang Simbahan kini nga pulongleitourgia gigamit alang sa serbisyo sa pagsimba sa katilingban sa Dios alang sa tanan. Pagkadugay ang pulong leitourgia gigamit alang sa opisyal nga pagsimba sa Simbahan.

II. Ang Liturhiya sumala sa Gitudlo sa Simbahan

 

1.      Sumala kang Pope Pius XII sa iyang encyclical letter, Mediator Dei, “ang liturhiya  usa ka publiko nga pagsimba nga gihalad sa atong Manunubos  isip Ulo sa Simbahan ngadto sa Amahan.” Kon sa ato pa ang liturhiya usa ka publiko nga pagsimba nga gihimo sa Mistiko nga Lawas ni Kristo apil ang iyang kinatibuk-ang ulo ug mga myembro.

2.      Sumala sa dokumento sa Vatican II, Sacrosanctum Concilium,“ang liturhiya mao ang pagtuman sa parianon nga buluhaton ni Kristo,” ug “usa ka aksyon ni Kristo ug sa iyang Lawas nga mao ang Simbahan.”

Daghan ang masulti nato bahin sa liturhiya apan pillion tana lang ang mga punto nga importante sa gitudlo sa Simbahan bahin sa Liturhiya.

III. Nature of Liturgy

1.      Ang liturhiya usa ka aksyon ni Kristo nga Pari ug sa Iyang Lawas ang Simbahan. Ang liturhiya mao angpubliko nga pagsimba nga gihalad sa Dios sa Simbahan nga nahiusa kang Kristo.

2.      Ang liturhiya mao ang katumanan sa Misteryo sa Kaluwasan pinaagi sa mga timailhan ug mga simbolo. Iyang ginahimo nga mahinabo alang kanato karon ang makaluwas nga gugma sa Dios diha sa Iyang Anak pinaagi sa Espiritu Santo.

3.      Ang liturhiya may kalabtanan sa kinabuhi. Sa liurhiya nagagikan ang atong gahum ug kusog aron si Kristo mamahimong presente ug aktibo sa kalibutan karon ug mapakita ang iyang walay kinutubang gugma alang sa mga kabus ug alang sa ikaayo sa tanang katawhan.

4.      Ang liturhiya usa ka propesiya (prophecy) sa umaabot nga eskatolohiya (eschatology). Pinaagi kaniya atong ginabuhi sa kalibutan ang balaang paglaum nga ang kinabuhing tawhanon adunay katapusang katuyuan ug walay katapusang kahulugan

5.      Ang liturhiya usa ka catechesis (instruction) sa Pagtoo. Kini nga instruction ginabuhat pinaagi sa mga Balasahon sa mga Pulong sa Dios, sa homily ug sa nagkalain-laing kasaulogan sa liturgical calendar.

6.      Ang liturhiya usa ka dialogo sa tunga sa tawo ug sa Dios.

7.      Ang liturhiya labaw pa kay sa tanang mga aksyon sa Simbahan. It is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed and the source from which all her power flows.

IV. Ang Tumong sa Liturhiya (The Purpose of Liturgy)

 

The ultimate aim of the liturgy  is:

1.      Ang hingpit nga paghimaya sa Dios ug

2.      Ang pagpasantos sa mga tawo nga nagasaulog niini (Sacrosanctum Concilium 7)

V. Kinds of Liturgy

 

1.      Eucharist (Mass)

2.      Sacraments and Sacramentals

3.      Liturgy of the Hours (Divine Office or Breviary)

4.      Liturgical time and seasons

5.      Liturgical feasts and anniversaries, and

6.      Liturgical year

VI. Basic Elements of Liturgy

1.      Ang Presensya ni Kristo (Presence of Christ)

2.      Ang Pag-alagad sa Simbahan (Ministry of the Church)

Christ acts effectively in the liturgy “through the hands of the priests” who represent the Church

VII. Celebrants of the Liturgy

1.      Ang unang celebrant mao si Kristo mismo

2.      Ang ikaduhang celebrant mao ang Liturgical Assembly o katilingban nga nagkatigum

3.      Ang ikatulong celebrant mao ang pari nga nangulo sa liturhiya

B. LITURGY AND THE LITURGICAL ASSEMBLY

1.      Ang liturhiya usa ka kasaulogan sa Simbahan, apan kini kasaulogan usab sa local nga pundok sa mga tumotoo nga nagkatigum sa liturhiya. Kining pundok sa mga tumotoo maoy gitawag natong liturgical assembly.

2.      Ang liturgical assembly usa ka importanteng kabahin sa bisan unsang selebrasyon. Kon atong susihon walay selebrasyon kon walay assembliya.

I. Origin and Development of the Liturgical Assembly

 

1.      Sa Daang Kasulatan kini nga Asembliya gitawag nga Qahal Yahweh. Usa kini ka panagtigum sa katawhan nga gitawag sa Dios, aron pagpaminaw sa iyang mensahe, ug pagtubag niini. Tungod niini ang Qahal Yahweh nahimong lahing okasyon alang sa katawhan sa Israel aron pagsaulog sa ilang pagkapiniling katawhan sa Dios, sa pag-ila ug pagbag-o sa ilang kasabutan sa Ginoo.

2.      Sa Bag-ong Kasulatan, ang pulong nga gigamit alang sa nagkatigum nga Kristohanong katilingban mao ang “ecclesia” o asembliya. Kini nga pulong maoy gigamit alang sa local nga mga pundok sa nagkalain-laing dapit (sa Jerusalem, Antioch, Judea, Galilee ug Samaria) ug usab sa uban pang mgfa pundok sa Simbahan sa tibuok kalibutan.

3.      Kining local nga asembliya nagkatigum matag “Adlaw sa Ginoo” (Domingo, aron pagpaminaw sa Pulong sa Dios ug pag-ambit sa “Pagpikas-pikas sa Pan.” Ang asembliya gipanguluhan sa Obispo kauban sa iyang mga ministro – mga kaparian, diakono ug uban pang minor ministers.

4.      Sa sinugdanan ang asembliya nagkatigum sa mga balay (private homes) sa maarang-arang nga mga myembro sa katilingban. Apan sa nagkadaghan ang katawhan ug nagdugang ang mga myembro nga gidawat sa Simbahan, nanginahanglan nga balhinon ang mga dapit sa pagsimba sa mas dakung mga lugar. Ug busa, natukod ang mga simbahan ug namugna ang sistema nga gitawag mga parokya nga may ilang kaugalingon nga parish churches.

5.      Ang simbahan sa parokya mao ang lig-on nga higot nga naglambigit (link) sa katilingban ug sa liturgical assembly. Dinhi gibuhat ang liturhikanhong mga serbisyo sa katilingban ug dinhi sa parish churches ang liturgical assembly nagkatigum alang sa liturhikanhong kasaulogan.

6.      Panahon sa Middle Ages (5th to 15th century) nagsulod ang kagubot ug pagkatibulaag sa liturgical assembly. Ang padayon nga paglambo sa Simbahan nagbunga ug bag-ong mga problema. Ang impluwensya sa parish churches isip sentro sa liturgical assembly anam-anam nga nakuhaan.

7.      Daghan ang mga hinungdan sa niining sitwasyon:

a.       Ang pag-abot sa mga Mendicant Orders nga kasagaran nagtukod sa ilang mga simbhan duol sa parish churches ug nagdani sa mga magsisimba

b.      Ang pagtukod sa daghang mga chapels ug oratories nga may ilang kaugalingong “private Masses”

c.       Ang pagdaghan sa gitawag nga “Mass-priest” nga giordinahan alang lang sa pagMisa ug walay laing pastoral responsibility

d.      Tingali labaw sa tanan, ignorance, walay pagpakabana ug kakulang sa pagsabot bahin sa tinuod nga kahulogan sa Kristohanon nga pagsimba.

II. The Liturgical Assembly according to Vatican II

 

1.      Tingali ang labing importante nga reforma nga nahimo sa Vatican II mao ang pag-uli sa importante nga papel sa aktibo nga asembliya diha sa liturhiya sa Simbahan.

2.      Ang Konsilyo nag-ila nga ang asembliya adunay right and duty sa partisipar sa pag-ampo sa Simbahan ug sa maong paagiha iyang gibalik ang higot nga naglambigit sa kinaiya sa Simbahan ug sa kasaulogan.

3.      Ang Konsilyo usab nag-ila sa katilingbanong kinaiya sa Kristohanong pagsimba – usa ka kinaiya nga nawala sukad pa sa panahon sa Middle Ages tungod sa hilabihang pagtagad sa papel sa pari diha sa liturhiya.

The Council gave Three Main Theological orientations of the Liturgical Assembly:

1.      The Liturgical Assembly is convoked by God. It is God Himself who calls the assembly by the action of the Holy Spirit. It is God’s initiative which is at the foundation of this assembly. It is why this assembly is called “ecclesia” (from klesis – called).

2.      The liturgical assembly is an epiphany of the Church itself. The assembly is a sign, a manifestation of the Church. It is a “Sacrament,” a sign of Christ and His presence in the world. It reflects the fullness of the local church.

3.      The liturgical assembly is an anticipation of the reign of God. It serves as a sign of the banquet at the end of time in which all of God’s children will be gathered around the same table.

C. PARTICIPATION IN THE LITURGY

Ang partisipasyon sa liturhiya dili bag-o. kini daan na nga gibuhat sa unang mga Kristyano sa bag-o pa ang Simbahan (2nd to 5th century). Kini anam-anam nga nawala sa mga tinuig nga milabay (6th to 20th century), apan karon gibalik na kini kanato sa Vatican II.

I. Origin and Development of Participation in the Liturgy

 

1.      Sa bag-o pa ang Simbahan ang mga tomotoo aduna gayo’y dako ug aktibong papel sa liturhikanhong kasaulogan. Sila miapil sa liturhiya ngs may dakong attention ug debosyon. Sila miapil sa mga awit, mga tubag, sa mga pag-ampo ug sa paghalad sa mga gasa.

2.      Apan kining buhi ug mahinungdanon nga partisipasyon nagkaluya sa milabay nga mga panahon ug sa pagkadugay kumpleto nga nawala. Ang mga tomotoo anam-anam nga mibiya sa pag-apil sa mga liturhikanhong kasaulogan. Miblahin sila gikan sa papel isip aktibo nga mga partisipante padulong sa walay tingog ug passive nga mga spectators sa usa ka liturhiya nga iya sa mga pari. mao kini ang kahimtang sa liturhiya saw ala pa ang Vatican II.

II. Various Attempts to Restore Participation in the Liturgy

Dili tinuod nga ang mga kausaban nga nahitabo sa liturhiya karon bunga lamang sa Vatican II. Ang matuod mao nga ang lihok sa pagreporma sa liturhiya nagsugod mga 60 ka tuig saw ala pa ang Vatican II. Kini tungod sa tinguha sa mga grupo sa Liturgical Movement ug sa suporta sa daghang mga Santo Papa niining atong siglo (20th century).

1.      He liturgical movement of the 19th century started in France and spread to several countries. The main objective of the Liturgical Movement was the reform of the Liturgy particularly the liturgical participation of the faithful.

2.      Several popes were involved in the Movement, starting with Pope Leo XIII in 1902, Pope Pius X in his moto propio, Tra le Sollicitudini of 1903.

3.      Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) introduced the dialogue Mass, the singing of Credo and the Pater Noster together with the people, the use of the Missal.

4.      Pope Pius XI (1922-39), in his time, congresses and gatherings were held the central theme of which was participation of the people at Mass.

5.      Pope Pius XII’s encyclical, Mediator Dei, of 1947 was the most important document before Vatican II. Some important points:

a.       The liturgy is the public worship of the Body of Christ, head and members;

b.      Active participation of the faithful in the rites is by virtue of the priesthood common to all believers.

c.       The Liturgy is the summit of Church’s life, liturgical or extra-liturgical. It is the source of Church’s activity because all grace derives from it.

6.      Pope John XXIII convoked the Vatican II which produced the Constitution on Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum Concilium – SC). Some important points:

a.       Liturgical actions are not private actions but are celebrations of the Church.

b.      Liturgy requires the active participation of the faithful. Such participation should be full, conscious active participation

c.       Active participation is the right and duty of the faithful “by reason of their baptism (SC 14).

III. Mga Paagi sa Pag-apil sa Liturhiya

Ang Liturhikanhong Panagtigum (Liturgical Assembly) usa ka katilingbanong buhat sa pagsimba nga gilangkuban sa katawhan nga aktibo ug mabungahong nagaapil sa maong buhat.

Karon atong hisgutan ang pipila ka Giya aron nga mahingpit ang atong pag-apil sa panagtigum.

1. Maayong Pagpangandam. Matud pa, “ang maayong liturhiya resulta sa maayong pagpangandam.” Ang liturhiya nagasaulog sa diosnong gasa sa panahon ug pagpangandam alang sa lngitnong bangkite. Nan, isip sakop sa Simbahan angayan ang paglambigit ug pag-apil sa liturhiya. Ug aron makaapil og mayo, importante ang paggahin og igong panahon sa pagpangandam sa kaugalingon ug sa mga gikinahanglan alang sa pagsaulog.

2. Paghilum. Ang maayong kasaulogan sa liturhiya naggahim og luna alang sa paghilum. Samtang nakighimamat kita sa Dios, nagpatalinghug kita sa Espiritu ug maggahin og panahon sa pagmalandong sa Pulong sa Dios ug diha sa atong pagtigum sa atong mga pangaliya. Diha sa kasaulogan adunay gigahin alang sa kahilum. Ug ang matag paghilum adunay iya-iyang katuyoan. Pananglit – diha sa sinugdanan sa pagsaulog, giawahag kita paghilom aron paghinulsol sa atong mga sala; human sa pagsangyaw sa mga basahon, mohilum kita aron pagpamalandong sa Pulong sa Dios; human sa pagkalawat sa Misa pahilumon kita aron pagpasalamat sa Dios nga mipaambit kanato sa iyang kaugalingon aron mahimo natong kalan-on ug ilimnon sa kinabuhi.

3. Pamarog ug Paglihok. Pinaagi sa atong lawas mapadayag nato ang atong pagsimba, pag-ila, pagtahud, pagdayeg ug pagpasalamat sa Dios ug sa atong isigkamagtotoo. Hinungdan nga usa ka epektibong paagi sa pag-apil sa kasaulogan mao ang atong hustong pamisti/barog ug ingon man ang atong pagpakighiusa diha sa mga lihok nga himuon.

4.      Pagtubag sa Pangadyeon ug Pag-awit. Laing paagi sa pag-apil sa liturhiya mao ang pagtubag sa mga pag-ampo ug pagpakighiusa diha sa pag-awit. Kini maghimo kanato nga mas buhi ug madasigon sa atong pagsimba. Kini usab maglig-on sa atong bugkos ingon nga usa ka katawhan ug magpalawom sa atong panaglambigit. Bahin sa pag-awit, sa San Augustine nagkanayon, “Siya nga mag-awit nga mayo, nag-ampo og makaduha.”

5.      Mabungahong Pagsaulog. Giingon nga ang kasaulogan sa liturhiya mao ang kasaulogan sa atong kasaulogan. Nan, tungod niini sa matag apil nato sa liturhiya nga nakasabot ug aktibo, kita gihagit sa pagkinabuhi sa kaluwasan nga atong gisaulog. Kinahanglan nga madasig ug maglig-on ang atong kinabuhi nga matarong ug diosnon. Kinahanglan nga ang mga balaang misteryo nga atong gisaulog mmamunga og usa ka balaanong kinabuhi dinhi kanato ug maghimo kanatong kahayag ug kadasig sa uban.

D. LITURGICAL MINISTERS

 

 

I. Kinds of Liturgical Ministers:

The GIRM (General Instruction of the Roman Missal 2002) has coined the term “liturgical ministers” to refer to all who perform services during liturgical celebrations. These Ministers are of two kinds: Ordained and Non-ordained Ministers.

1.      Ordained Ministers are the Bishops, Priests and deacons

a.       Bishop.The Bishop is the principal liturgist in his own diocese. It is his duty to control, promote and protect the entire liturgical life of the Church entrusted to him (Christus Dominus, 15).

b.      Priest. The priest is the representative of the bishop in the parish. He leads and promotes the liturgical life of the faithful in the parish.

c.       Deacon.The deacon assists the bishop and priests in liturgical celebrations.

2.      Non-ordained Liturgical ministers are classified as instituted, deputized and authorized:

a.       The Instituted Liturgical Ministers are the instituted lector and instituted acolyte.

i.      In 1972, Pope Paul VI through his apostolic letter, “Ministeria Quaedam” reformed the Ministries within the Church. Two ministries were created – the ministry of Lector and the Ministry of Acolyte.

ii.      These new ministries of reader and acolytes would undergo formal recognition through the rite of institution. Hence they are now called instituted lector and instituted acolyte.

b.      Deputized Liturgical Ministers

i.      Pope Paul VI in the Instruction, Immensae caritatis (1973) permitted the authorization of special ministers to give communion to themselves and others, after having been deputized by the local ordinary or one sodelegated by him.

ii.      The liturgical functions of the deputized minister are to distribute communion within the Mass and to bring communion to those who are sick, shut-in or dying. He may also distribute communion outside Mass on Sundays.

iii.      When there is genuine pastoral need, however, a person may be authorized to distribute Communion at Mass on a single occasion without any previous deputation (ad hoc appointment).

c. Authorized Liturgical Ministers

i.      In addition to instituted ministers that might have been recognized formally through institution or deputation, other men/women may also be invited in a host of other liturgical roles. They are the authorized ministers.

ii.      Being “authorized” means there is no formal recognition or ceremony attached to it. It is enough that the person is recognized as qualified and worthy to fulfill the ministry assigned to him/her.

iii.      This informal recognition and/or invitation maybe explicit or implicit, by the local pastor.

iv.      Various kinds of Authorized Liturgical Ministers:

1.      Some authorized liturgical ministers are the readers, the altar servers, the sacristan, the commentator, and those in the ministries of music, hospitality and environment.

2.      Music ministers are the Psalmist or cantor, song leader, organist and other musicians, and the choir. The main function of this ministry is to support the community in singing and music.

3.      The liturgical commentator provides explanation and commentaries with purpose on introducing the faithful to the celebration and preparing them to understand it (GIRM 68). Under this category are in those in charge of the introduction before Mass and those reading the announcements after the Communion Prayer.

4.      Those in the Ministry of Hospitality are the ushers whose function is to welcome the faithful, especially new members or visitors to the liturgical celebration. Other functions are to supervise and facilitate good order of the assembly (sitting arrangement, procession, communion) and even to exclude those who are banned from the liturgical gathering.

5.      Those in the Ministry of Environment are the collectors, the sacristy assistants, and those preparing the things in the sanctuary and the offertory table at the back of the Church.

II. Formation of Liturgical Ministers

1.      Sacrosanctum Concilium recommends that all ministers, in the exercise of their liturgical ministry, ought to discharge their offices with sincere piety and decorum (SC 4), that they be deeply imbued with the spirit of the liturgy and be trained to perform their functions in a correct and orderly manner (SC 29).

2.      The document also suggests that adequate criteria for the selection for liturgical ministers be established. To be considered in the criteria are the natural aptitudes and qualities of candidates, their personal witnessing life and their commitment to the demands and expectations for all who aspire to or are already engaged in liturgical ministry.

3.      The proper formation of all liturgical ministers should include not only learning about the liturgy but also knowing the function of one’s particular ministry in terms of both its limits and its demands.

4.      Each minister must also come to know how to handle the particular “tools” of the ministry with a degree of style and presence that enhances the liturgical act.

III. Purpose of the Liturgical Ministry

1.      The common purpose of all ministry activity is to facilitate the community’s worship of God and the sanctification of God’s people.

2.      The variety of ministries reflects the nature and richness of the Church itself with its diversity of gifts.

3.      Liturgical ministries are different but each has its significant function within the assembly gathered in liturgical prayer.

4.      All who minister within the liturgy are ultimately servants of the members of the community with whom they gather.

E. PRINCIPLES AND NORMS OF LITURGY

I. INTRODUCTION

 

1.      Atong hisgutan ang bahin sa mga prinsipyo ug mga norms sa liturhiya. Ang mga prinsipyo sa liturhiya nabase sa mga gitudlo sa Simbahan. Ang mga norms maoy bahin sa mga balaod, mga reglamento, mga patakaran ug mga guidelines nga gihimo sa Simbahan.

2.      Ang mga reporma nga gipatuman sa Vatican II nagdala og daghang mga mayo ug positibong resulta apan aduna pud mga dili mayo ug negatibong resulta. Sa mga negatibong resulta anaa ang kalibog ug mga abuso nga misulod.

3.      Usa sa mga hinungdan sa kalibog mao ang ignorance sa tinuod nga kinaiya sa simbahan u gang iyang ralasyon sa liturhiya. Ang usa pa ka hinungdan mao ang resistensya sa mga kabag-ohan.

4.      Daghang mga abuso ang mitumaw sa liturhiya. Kini nga mga abuso naggikan sa sayop nga pagsabot sa espiritu sa Vatican II ug tungod niini daghang mga unauthorized liturgical innovations ang nanggula sa liturhiya.

5.      Tungod niini ang Roma midesisyon sa pagdumili niining mga liturgical innovations ug mipagula sa duha ka normative documents: ang General Instruction of the Roman Missal (GIRM) sa 2002 ug ang Redemtionis Sacramentum (RS) sa 2004.

6.      Mao kining duha ka mga dokumento ang main sources alang niining lecture. Ang uban pang mga sources mao ang mga documents sa Vatican II, uban pang kasulatan bahin sa liturhiya u gang Acts and Decrees of the First Diocesan Pastoral Assembly (DPA I) sa Diocese of Marbel.

II. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LITURGY

I. General Principles

 

Ang liturhiya sumala sa Vatican II usa ka aksyon ni Kristo ug sa Simbahan. Ang liturhiya mao ang pinakataas nga pagsimba nga mahatag nato sa Dios isip Iyang katawhan nga mao ang Simbahan. Sa liturhiya kita nagsimba ug nagpasidungog sa dios pinaagi sa nagkalainlaing mga forma sa liturhikanhong aksyon: ang Eucharistiya, mga sakramento, ang Liturgy of the Hours, mga pyesta, ug mga panahon sa sulod sa liturgical year.

II. Unom (6) ka Batakang Prinsipyo alang  sa Reporma sa Liturhiya (Vatican II Sacrosanctum Concilium)

 

Ang unang dokumento nga gipagula sa Vatican II mao ang Sacrosanctum Concilium (SC) o sa English pa, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (CSL). Kining maong dokumento gipagula niadtong December 4, 1965 ug gipadayag dinhi ang mga prinsipyo, lagda ug giya alang sa reporma ug pagbag-o sa liturhikanhong pagsimba. Ania Unom (6) ka Batakang nga Prinsipyo alang sa Reporma sa Liturhiya:

 

1.      Ang Liturhiya mao ang pagbansay sa Parianong buluhaton ni Kristo, (SC 7).

2.      Ang liturhiya mao ang padulngan ug tinubdan sa kinabuhi sa Simbahan, (SC 10).

3.      Ang liturhiya magdasaig sa katawhan sa mas aktibo, mabungahon ug nasabtan nga pag-apil sa tanang kasaulogan sa pagsimba, (SC 11).

4.      Ang liturhiya kasaulogan sa tibook Simbahan, ang katawhan sa Dios. Kini nagpadayag sa kinatibuk-ang Simbahan, (SC 26).

5.      Ang simbahan abli alang sa matood ug angay nga kahiusahan sa liturhiya ug dili sa pagkaparehas gayud, (SC 38).

6.      Adunay duha ka kamatuoran ang liturhiya:

a.       Ang dili makita, dili mausab ug dili matapos nga kamatuoran, nga mao kadtong mga kamatuoran nga gipadayag, gipamulong ug gihimo sa Dios nga naglambigit sa iyang makaluwasnong buhat dinhi kanato.

b.      Ang Makita, tawhanon ug mailis-ilisan nga kamatuoran, nga mao ang mga timaan ug mga pamaagi nga dili na mosibo sa atong kapanahunan karon. Kini sila angayan nga usbon ug ipahaom aron mapadayag niini ang pagkabuhi ug kabatan-on sa Simbahan, (SC 23).

 

III. Lima ka Elemento sa Tiunay nga Liturhiya

Ang Vatican II nag-ingon nga ang liturhiya mao ang, “Katilingbanong paghimo sa parianong buluhaton ni Kristo. Diha sa paghimo niini mapadayag ang pagbalaan sa tawo ginamit ang mga timaan nga masabtan ug kahataga’g katumanan subay sa kahulugan sa maong mga timaan. Nan, pinaagi sa liturhiya nahitabo ang usa ka katilingbanong pagsimba nga gihimo sa Lawas ni Kristo. Busa walay buhat sa pagsimba nga makalabaw sa liturhiya tungod kay kini buhat man ni Kristo, ang Pangulong Pari ug sa Iyang Lawas, ang Simbahan,” (SC 7).

Sa maong paghulagway makita ang Lima ka Elemento aron maila ang tiunay nga liturhiya:

1.      Pagbansay sa parianong buluhaton ni Kristo. Si Kristo ang sentro sa liturhiya nga maoy naghingpit sa paghalad ug pagsimba sa katawhan ngadto sa Amahan pinaagi sa iyang kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw. Busa ang tanang kasaulogan kinahanglan kanunay nakagamot sa maong misteryo ni Kristo. Kay pinaagi kaniya, diha kaniya ug uban kaniya, kita, ang Simbahan, ang iyang katawhan, nagabag-o ug nagaapil niining makaluwasnong buhat matag saulog nato sa liturhiya.

2.      Pagbalaan sa katawhan. Kita naluwas ug nabalaan pinaagi ug diha sa makaluwasnong buhat ni Jesus. gihimo na niya ang iyang bahin sa pagpangluwas ug gidapit kita niya sa pagsunod agi’g paghimo sa atong bahin sa iyang buhat sa pagpangluwas. Sa matag saulog nato sa handumanan sa iyang kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw, masinati nato ang kaluwasan ug mabalaan usab kita. Mao nga ang SC nag-ingon nga ang liturhiya mao ang “padulngan ug tinubdan sa tanan natong kaluhukan ug kinabuhi isip Simbahan,” (no. 10).

3.      Makanunayong paggamit og mga timaan. Diha sa atong pagsaulog sa liturhiya atong gipadayag ang buhat sa Dios sa kaluwasan pinaagi’g mga timaan: pulong, mga lihok, butang, ug uban pa nga nagmatuod sa ilang gitiman-an.

4.      Nahitabo ang katilingbanong pagsimba nga gihimo ug gihalad sa lawas ni Kristo, ang Saimbahan. Sa pagsaulog sa liturhiya anaa kanunay ang katilingban. Nan, kinahanglan nga malukpanon (universal) ang paglantaw sa pagsaulog sa liturhiya. Dinhi makita nato ang kalainan tali sa liturhiya ug kinaugalingong pag-ampo.

5.      Pagkaanaa sa pangulo ug katilingban. Sa matag kasaulogan anaa kanunay ang pangulo (preside) kinsa nagpadayag kang Kristo uban sa iyang mga kaabag (other liturgical ministers) kinsa mga tinugyanan sa kadagkoan sa Simbahan sa pagbuhat sa ingon ug ingon man ang mga sakop nga nagabansay sa ilang tagsatagsa ka buluhaton diha sa kasaulogan. Walay magtotoo nga sa iyang kaugalingong pagbuot makadumala sa liturhiya. Ang kasaulogan nagasubay sa mga tamdanan nga aprobado sa mga namunoan sa simbahan.

Sa ato pa, ang Liturhiya mao ang katilingbanong pagsimba sa Dios diin gisaulog nato ang Iyang makaluwasnong buhat dinhi kanato pinaagi ug diha ni Kristo, ang atong labaw’ng pari kaniadto, karon ug sa umaabot uban ang diwa sa pagdayeg, pagpasalamat ug maghimaya kaniya.

IV. Right of the Faithful to Proper Celebration of the Liturgy

 

1.      Ang liturhiya usa ka selebrasyon ni Kristo ug sa mga tumotoo nga nagkatigum sa liturgical assembly. Ang Redemptionis Sacramentum nag-ila sa katungod sa mga tumotoo sa husto nga pagsaulog sa liturhiya labi na ang Santos nga Misa.

2.      Kini nga katungod nangahulugan nga ang Sakripisyo sa Misa kinahanglan saulogon alang kanila sa tibuok nga paagi, sumala sa gitudlo ug kabubut-on sa Simbahan, sumala sa prescribed liturgical books ug sa uban pang mga balaod ug norms.

V. The Church’s Authority over the Liturgy

 

1.      Ang Simbahan midawat sa iyang Liturhiya gikan sa mga apostoles sa walay hunong nga tradisyon. Ug kini mao ang iyang tahas “to transmit faithfully and carefully to future generations” (RS 9). Busa, katungod ug obligasyon sa Simbahan ang pagregulate sa liturhiya.

2.      Ang liturhiya usa ka balaan nga butang nga dili angay hilabtan sa bisan kinsa. Gani ginadilian ang pag-usab, pagbuhin o pagdugang sa bisan unsang bahin niini. (Do not alter, do not omit, do not add anything to it).

3.      Adunay different levels in the Church’s governing authority over the liturgy: the Pope, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments in Rome, the Bishops’ Conference of a country (CBCP) and finally, the Bishop of the Diocese.

VI. The Authority and Obligations of the Bishop

1.      The bishop is the chief liturgist and the High Priest of his flock in his diocese. It is hasty and obligation to control, promote liturgy in his diocese. He can promulgate liturgical norms in his diocese and correct liturgical abuses (RS 24).

2.      He alone has the authority to review and grant permission for certain variations in celebrations and liturgical innovations that might be introduced in his diocese.

VII. The Role of Priests and Laity in the Liturgy

1.      It is the priest, who, as an ordained minister, presides over the liturgy. The laity can help in many ways.

2.      The role of the priest must not be taken over by the laity

3.      The celebration of the Eucharist, the community “absolutely requires an ordained priest.”

F. LITURGICAL RITES, ARTS AND MUSIC

I. INTRODUCTION

 

1.      Liturgical rites, arts and music are basic components of liturgy. These components do not function separately but are complementary to one another.

2.      Liturgical rites are concerned with words and actions in the liturgy. Liturgical arts deal with signs, symbols and materials used in the liturgy. Liturgical music is concerned with chants, hymns and accompaniment used in the liturgy.

3.      Liturgical rites, arts and music are integral parts of the liturgical celebration. They contribute to the celebrity, beauty, nobility, and dignity of the celebration.

II. LITURGICAL RITES

a.       Liturgical rites deal with words and actions in liturgical celebrations. Words concern texts and wordings used in the liturgy. Actions concern movements, postures and gestures done in the liturgy.

b.      Rites follow specific rules or norms prescribed by the Church in the liturgical books and instructions. The main purpose of rites is to give glory to God and sanctification of His people.

 

1. Planning the Liturgy

Planning is the responsibility of the priest-celebrant together with those who are in charge of rites, arts and music. The purpose of such planning is to ensure a good celebration and establish unity and harmony in the liturgy.

2. Things to be Prepared before Mass

a.       Preparation of the Altar (GIRM 79-81). The altar is to be covered with at least one cloth. On or near the altar there are to be candlesticks with lighted candles, at least two but even four, six or, if the bishop of the diocese celebrates, seven. There is also to be a cross on or near the altar. The candles and cross maybe carried in the entrance procession. The Book of the Gospels maybe carried in the entrance procession then placed on the altar (GIRM 79).

b.      Preparation of the Books:

i.      Next to the priest’s chair – the Sacramentary and the folder with the Prayers of the Faithful. The Sacramentary must be marked in its proper pages for a particular Sundays (prayers, preface, canon, etc.).

ii.      At the Ambo or Lectern – the Lectionary which must be marked in its pages for the readings for a particular Sunday (first reading, responsorial psalm, second reading)

iii.      At the offertory table at the entrance of the Church – the Book of the Gospels which shall be carried by the reader or deacon. This book will also be marked in its proper pages for the gospel of a particular Sunday.

c.       Preparation of the Credence Table. On a credence table – the chalice, corporal, purificator, a paten and ciboria with the bread for the communion of the faithful; the requisites for the washing of hands (GIRM 80).

d.      Preparation of the Offertory Table (at the entrance of the Church). One table for the presentation of the gifts – cruets containing water and wine, a ciborium with bread (hosts) and other things to be offered.

e.       Preparation of the Vestments. In the sacristy – the vestments for the priests and ministers:

i.      For the Priest – sotana, stole and chasuble

ii.      For the Deacon - sotana, stole and dalmatic

iii.      For the other ministers – lawfully approved vestments or uniform (GIRM 81)

 

3. The Order of the Mass

 

a.       The Order of the Entrance Procession is as follows: candles, Book of the Gospels, Readers, Lay Ministers, Priest

b.      The Book of the Gospels is carried by a Reader. The Gospel Book is slightly raised at eye level. (Note: Lectionary, Bible, Mag-ambahan, Talad, Sambuhay and the like, are not to be used in procession. If there is no Book of the Gospel, this part is simply omitted).

c.       In front of the altar, the Priest and minor Ministers make a profound bow (bow from the waist).

d.      Opening Prayer and Closing Prayer are properly made at the Presider’s Chair.

e.       At the Reading of the Gospel, people should face the ambo where Gospel is proclaimed. Short silence should be observed after the Gospel Reading and after Communion. (Please minimize singing)

f.       General Intercessions (Prayer of the Faithful) and its sequences of Intentions: 1) for the Church, 2) for Public authorities, 3)for any kind of difficulties, 4) for the local communities, 5) others.

g.      At Offertory, people remain seated even while Offertory Procession is made. Things to be offered are the following: offerings in kind (“fruits of toil”), hosts, wine and water. (Note: Flowers are no longer offered. They should be already in place near the altar. Collections maybe brought to their proper places later. Symbolic offerings are not allowed unless things offered are not taken back).

h.      People STAND when Priest says, “Pray brothers and sisters, that my sacrifice and yours maybe acceptable to God, the Almighty Father).

i.        After Post-Communion, the following maybe made: Announcements (Note: Please make them short!); any other non-liturgical ceremonies such as inductions, 2nd collections (but purpose should be explained first).

4. Proper Way of Receiving Communion

a.       In front of the priest and when he says, “The Body of Christ” you should bow your head and respond, “Amen.” Receive the host in your hands and stay aside. Put the host into your mouth and go back to your seat meditating in silence. It is not necessary to bow to the tabernacle because Christ is already with you.

b.      Communion is allowed more than once on the same day he/she receives it within a Eucharistic celebration in which he/she is participating (RS 95) but not a 3rd or 4th time in one day.

5. Observing Silence

We observe silence at the beginning of the Mass when the priest says, “My brothers and sisters, to prepare ourselves to celebrate……,” every time the priest says, “Let us pray…..,” after the gospel reading and after the Communion (longer silence).

6. Practices which are not Liturgical

a. Holding of hands and raising of hands during the “Our Father.” This is an imitation of presidential action.

b. Bowing towards the altar before the reading and after the reading (as often done by readers). This action is not required.

c. Bowing after receiving the Communion. This action is not required by liturgy and reveals ignorance and lack of attention on the part of the Communicant.

7. Theme for the Sunday Liturgy

But first of all we have to ask the following questions for review: What is Liturgy? How does the Church celebrate liturgy? And how do we participate in the celebration of the liturgy?

Liturgy is a celebration of the Church and of the local Christian community.

The Church celebrates the liturgy by creating structures for the celebration: the liturgical year, the seasons, solemnities and feasts, the prescribed readings and prayers. Then the Church sets up norms for the proper celebration of the celebration of the liturgy (GIRM).

The locan Christian community participates in the liturgy by providing the persons and things needed for the liturgy such as, the place for the celebration, the people, the ministers, the vestments, vessels, etc.

Other things that are prepared are the Theme, the Introduction, the Prayer of the Faithful and the Music to be used in the celebration. This task is usually given to the loca group of lay liturgists who prepare these things before the celebration.

What is a Theme? What is the purpose of a Theme? How do we select and formulate a theme? What is a Theme? According to the dictionary, a theme is a topic, a subject matter, an implicit idea. In liturgy, a theme is the main idea, main lesson or message of a given gospel passage.

What is the purpose of a theme? A theme is a kind of advertisement or ads.  Ads sell ideas and promote products. In the liturgy we sell more than ideas or products. We sell truth and we proclaim the good news of salvation and liberation that Jesus brings.

The main purpose of the theme, therefore, is to focus attention to the chosen message of the gospel which will be explained more in the homily of the priest.

How do we choose a theme?

7.1.Process

First, check the Ordo to get information about a particular Sunday.

Second, read and study the readings, particularly the gospel, for the Sunday.

Third, get the main idea or lesson and formulate it into a theme.

In choosing a theme, the following factors should be considered: the season of the year, the feast or Sunday being celebrated, the gospel message that should be given prominence and the topic of the homily of the priest-celebrant.

  • A theme should be chosen that is most fitting for the occasion and just not any theme.
  • A theme has a message and such message should be clear and attractive.
  • Each theme should have the following characteristics:

o   It should be short, precise and easily remembered (simple and not too long)

o   It should be stated in a complete sentence (not mere phrases)

o   It should be visually attractive (not just written on the board)

  • The theme should have a connection with the homily of the priest. So, consult the priest and get his approval before finalizing the theme.

7.2.How do we formulate a Theme?

A Theme maybe formulated in three ways: as a direct quotation, an indirect quotation or an interpretation of a gospel passage.

  • If direct quotation from the gospel, the statement should be faithful to the original text and not a misquotation of what Christ said nor a twisting of Christ’s words.
  • If indirect quotation of the gospel text, the statement should still be faithful to the original text but only formulated in an indirect manner
  • If interpretation of the gospel text, the statement should convey correct message and should not be hazy, ambivalent or suspect to wrong interpretation.
  • Examples:

o   Direct quotation: “I am the Way, the Truth and the Life.”

o   Indirect quotation: “Jesus said, He is the Way, the Truth and the Life.”

o   Interpretation: “Jesus, the Way, the Truth and the Life.”

  • Defective Themes: Please avoid the following:

o   Themes that look like a title of the gospel. Example:  Jesus and the Samaritan woman

o   Theme that is only a phrase. Example: Body and Blood of Christ

o   Theme that is a mere statement of an event. Example: Jesus cures the man born blind.

o   Theme whose message is not clear and precise. Example: Jesus cures our blindness.

8. Introduction of the Mass

 

8.1. Meaning

What is Introduction? What is the purpose of Introduction? How do we make an Introduction?

According to the Dictionary, a an Introduction is a kind is a kind of preface or foreword that explains the content, scope, intention, or background of a book, article or speech.

In liturgy, an Introduction is a preliminary statement which is made before the start of the Mass. It is not part of the Introductory Rite of the Mass but only a preparation to the liturgy that is about to take place.

The Introduction is made before Mass begins, usually before the beginning of the entrance procession.

8.2. Purpose of an Introduction

The Introduction has a similar purpose as that of the Introductory Rite: to create an atmosphere of celebration, to put the assembly in the proper frame of mind, and to help the people to become conscious of themselves as a worshipping community (GIRM 25).

The main purpose of Introduction, therefore, is to prepare the people for the celebration by giving them short information about the occasion, the theme, the background and occasion of the liturgy about to be celebrated.

8.3. How to Make an Introduction

 

The Process: Similar process used as in making theme is being recommended:

First, Read the Ordo.

Second, Read and Study the Readings, more particularly, the Sunday gospel.

Third, Get the main idea or lesson and formulate your Introduction.

Like the theme, the Introduction must preserve the unity of the celebration. And so, the introduction must take into consideration the following factors: the Occasion, the Feast or Sunday that is being celebrated, the theme and the homily of the priest-celebrant.

An Introduction is not catechesis or a homily. It is not the purpose of an introduction to teach or to pre-empt the homily of the priest. So don’t try to do it.

An Itroduction must have the following characteristics:

1.      It should be short and not too long

2.      It must not be too wordy or moralizing

3.      It must set the tone and mode of the celebration

Suggested Format for an Introduction.  The Introduction may have Six Parts:

1.      Greeting of the people

2.      Announcement of the occasion being celebrated

3.      Announcement of the theme of the celebration

4.      Brief information about the content of the gospel

5.      Invitation to the people to prepare themselves for the celebration

6.      Calling on the people to stand for the singing of the entrance hymn

8.4. Sample Introduction to the Sunday Liturgy

 

Sample Introduction to the Fifth Sunday of Easter. Sanple Format: (in 6 Parts adapted from the Lesson Guide)

1.      GREETING: Maayong Buntag kaninyong tanan.

2.      OCCASION: Ang atong kasaulogan karon alang sa Ika-Limang Dominggo sa Pagkabanhaw

3.      THEME: Ang atong tema karon nag-ingon, “Ako ang punoan, kamo ang mga sanga.”

4.      GOSPEL: Makahimo lamang kita sa mga buhat nga bunga sa Espiritu kon kita magpabilin diha kang Kristo. Kini mao ang tema sa ebanghelyo karon sumala sa gihulagway ni Jesus bahin sa punoan sa ubas ug sa mga sanga. Si Jesus mao ang punoan ug kita ang mga sanga. Pinaagi sa iyang kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw, si Kristo mihimo kanato nga naghiusa kaniya siya nagpuyo kanato ug kita kaniya. Gani, makapamunga kita ug daghan tungod kaniya.

5.      PREPARATION: Karon atong i-andam ang atong kaugalingon alang sa pagsaulog sa Santos nga Misa nga pagapangulohan ni Fr……

6.      ENTRANCE: Palihog manindog ang tanan alang sa pasiunang awit.

III. LITURGICAL ARTS

1.      Liturgical Arts are concerned with signs and symbols and material things used at Mass.  Include Liturgical arts include decorations, physical arrangements and things used for Mass.

2.      The purpose of liturgical arts is to enhance worship and provide the right ambience for worship. Criteria for Sacred Arts are simplicity and elegance, dignity, beauty, moderation and proportion.

 

1. Mga Prinsipyo sa Arte ug Palibot diha sa Liturhiya

Ang Arte o Paanindot diha sa liturhiya gimugna aron mopalambo sa liturhiya ug dili mopaanindot sa atong mga dapit alampoanan lamang o mahimo ba hinoong pasundayag. Gigamit nato kini aron motabang sa paghatag og dugang dignidad sa atong pagsimba. Kay unsa man diay ang katuyoan sa arte o sa paanindot diha sa liturhiya? Unsay mga prinsipyo o panghunahuna ngs angay natong sundon alang sa hustong pagpahiluna niini? Mao kini ang mosunod:

1.1.Teolohikanhong Prinsipyo. Ang Simbahan gitukod dili aron ipasundayag ang mga paanindot kundili, kini usa ka dapit tigumanan sa mga magsisimba ilabina sa Eukaristiya. Mao nga kun walay kalabutan sa pagsimba ang pagahimoon o kini makatabang sa katawhan diha sa ilang buhat sa pagsimba, walay luna sa maong dapit. Ilhon kini nga “supeflous.”

1.2.Liturhikanhong Prinsipyo. Ang tuyo sa arte o paanindot diha sa liturhiya mao ang pagtabang sa katawhan diha sa buhat sa pagsimba ug paghatag og dugang dignidad sa kasaulogan ug sa dapit alampoanan. Ang simbahan nga kulang sa gikinahanglang mga kagamitan alang sa pagsimba dili takus ilhon nga balay alampoanan.

Ang Dios wala magkinahanglan sa liturhiya, kita maoy nagkinahanglan niini. Pinaagi sa arte o paanindot sa liturhiya, kita madani ngadto sa diosnong kasaulogan. Nan, aduna kita’y nagkadaiyang paagi ug paanindot nga gigamit aron mapadayag nato ang atong pagsimba (EACW 4).

Kun maghisgot kita og paanindot sa liturhiya kinahanglan nga makatagbaw kini sa atong panabot. Kinahanglan nga kini atong makita, madungog, matilawan, masimhot ug mahikap.

Ang atong makita, madungog, matilawan, masimhot ug mahikap adlaw-adlaw makapadayag sa atong pagsimba ug pag-ila sa katingalahang buhat sa Dios dinhi sa atong taliwala (cf. Gurak, Ellen, Using Art in Sunday Worship, 1990, p. 5)

1.3.Pastoral nga Prinsipyo. “Sa pagtukod og simbahan kinahanglan nga kini haom alang sa katilingbanong pagsimba sa katawhan, ug nga kini makatabang aron ang katawhan makaapil nga aktibo sa kasaulogan,” (CSL 124).

1.4.Kulturanhong Prinsipyo. Dinhi sa Pilipinas, ang mga Simbahan gitukod ug gipaanindot basi a kulturanhong kasinatian sa nagsaulog o nagasimba nga katawhan. Matud pa nga sukad kaniadto “ang Simbahan wala magmugna og iyang kaugalingong estilo sa paanindot o arte, apan gitahud ug gidawat niini ang estilo sa paanindot o arte sa matag panahon ug matag katawhan sumala usab sa gikinahanglan diha sa pagsimba,” (SC 123). Diha sa maong lagda makita nato nga dunay duha ka prinsipyo ang gihuptan sa Simbahan kabahin sa pagpahiluna sa arte ug palibot sa lituthiya. Kini mao ang kultura sa katawhan nga nagasaulog u gang kinaiya sa liturhiya nga gisaulog.

 

2. Mga Butang nga Makapalambo sa Arte ug Palibot diha sa Liturhiya

2.1.Kahiusahan. Diha sa kinatibuk-ang buhat sa pagsimba hatagan gayud of dakong pagtagad sa kahiusahan sa katilingban nga nagasaulog. Ang dapit diin ang katawhan magsaulog “kinahanglan nga magdani ug magpadayag sa kahiusahan, nga kini dapit diin magkatigum ang mga binunyagan,” (EACW 53). Ang mga dapit sa nagkalain-laing alagad kinahanglan nga makita nga kabahin sa usa lamang ka katawhan nga nagkatigum. Dili kini bulag sa katilingban apan magtabang sa lihok o buhat sa pagsimba.

2.2.Makita. Kun ang liturhiya kasaulogan ug buhat sa katawhan important nga magkakita ang mga managsaulog lakip na ang mga dapit diin adto himoa ang mga bililhong kalihokan sa pagsimba. Dinhi kinahanglan nga hatagan og dakong pagtagad ang angayang makita sa katilingban. Mao nga ang dapit tigomanan ipahiluna og mayo aron kahatagan og hustong kahimutangan ang mga kagamitan ug kalihukan nga angayang masaksihan. Bililhon dinhi ang kahayag, natural o artipisyal man.

2.3.Madungog. Ang katawhan nga nagsimba kinahanglan makabati sa usa’g-usa ingon man sa mga alagad nga nagasulti diha sa kasaulogan. Mao diha sa dapit diin ginahimo ang pagsimba kinahanglan madunggan sa nanag-estorya ug nanag-awit. Busa ga nagsimba kinahanglan makabati sa usa’g-usa ingon man sa mga alagad nga nagasulti diha sa kasaulogan. Mao diha sa dapit diin ginahimo ang pagsimba kinahanglan madunggan sa nanag-estorya ug nanag-awit. Busa bililhon kayo ang mayo nga sound system aron masabtan ang mga alagad nga nagasulti ug madasig ang katawhan sa pag-apil (cf. DOL p. 110, GIRM 273).

2.4. Makalihok. Kiya nagatoo nga diha sa atong pagsaulog nahilambigit gayud ang atong tibook pagkatawo – atong lawas, hunahuna, diwa, pagbati ug uban pa. nan, tungod niini, ang lingkoranan sa mga tawo kinahanglan nga lo-ag ang pagkahimutang aron sa ingon sayon sa mga tawo ang paglihok u gang pag-apil sa kasaulogan sama sa pagtindog, pagluhod, pagpadayag sa pag-inigsoonay ug uban pa. Sa ato pa, ang pagkahimutang sa mga lingkoranan kinahanglan dili huot aron makalihok ang tanan sumala sa ginapangayo sa rito sa kasaulogan (EACW 59). Dugang niini, ang pagkahimutang sa mga kagamitan sa simbahan sama sa altar, ambo ug lingkoranan sa pangulo kinahanglan nnga ipahimutang og mayo aron mmakatabang kini ug daling malihok sa bisan unsang kasaulogan o okasyon (EACW 65).

2.5.Kayano. Ang nagkatigum nga katawhan mao ang pinakadakung timaan sa pagkaanaa sa Dios diha sa kasaulogan. Tungod niini kinahanglan tahuron ang katawahan nga nagkatigum pinaagi sa kayano sa dapit diin ang maong katilingban nanagkatigum alang sa pagsimba sa Dios. Walay daghang gipatapot sa bongbong o mga butang sa kilid-kilid aron walay makababag o makadistorbo sa panan-aw, paglihok ug paglambigitay sa matag usa. Ang lagda sa liturhiya mahitungod sa balaang paanindot/arte ug kagamitan “naghisgot mahitungod sa mapuslanong kaanindot (noble beauty) kaysa pagpasundayag sa mga paanindot,” (DOL 124). Mao kini ang angayang hatagan og dakung pagtagad sa mga alagad nga gitahasan sa pagmugna ug angayang dapit sa pagsimba. Kini sila mao ang mga arkitekto, tigpaanindot sa dapit ug palibot, tigpahimutang sa mga “captions” ug “banners.”

3. Unity in the Liturgy

This unity is by careful planning. When we say planning the liturgy, it does not mean we are creating a new liturgy. What we mean is that we are supplying only what we are lacking. These things are: the décor, the theme, the introduction, the prayers of the faithful, the music, etc.

4. Rules for Decorations. The following should be considered:

a.       The season in the Liturgical Year (Advent, Christmas, Lent, Easter, Ordinary Time). Each season has its own color (violet, white or gold and green).

b.      The mood of the season or feast (whether joyful, penitential, sorrowful, glorious). For Advent and Lent, no décor or moderate décor only.

c.       The them for that particular Sunday, this is particularly important for the preparation of the introduction, theme and prayer of the faithful and choice of music.

In Planning the Sunday Liturgy, the following factors are to be considered:

i.      The occasion, the season, the readings and the prayers for the Mass. Also to be considered are the people, the presider, the ministers, the things to be prepared, etc.

ii.      The first thing to do is to check the Ordo. The Ordo will tell us what Sunday it is, the color of the vestment, the readings, etc.

iii.      Next, is to read and study the readings for that particular Sunday in order to prepare the theme, the introduction, the responsorial psalm, the prayers of the faithful and the appropriate songs to be used, etc.

iv.      The theme, the introduction, the prayers of the faithful should form a kind of unity and should be connected with one another. The best way to do this is to build the theme, the introduction, the prayers of the faithful on the Gospel reading for a particular Sunday.

5. Mga Elemento sa Arte ug Palibot

 

5.1.Sagradong Luna diha sa Simbahan

Alang kanatong mga Katoliko, ang Simbahan nga maoy atong tigomanan nagpadayag sa atong pagka-Katwahan sa Dios o pagka-Simbahan nga sa kanunay nanagkatigum arong pagsaulog sa atong kaluwasan. Sulod sa maong simbahan adunay nga dapit nga gigahin alang sa kasaulogan. Sila atong gitawag nga “sagradong luna o dapit” tungod kay sa maong luna naanaa ang atong Ginoo kinsa kanunay nagpadayon sa iyang buhat sa pagpangluwas dinhi kanato nga iyang sagrado o balaang katawhan. Maoy hinungdan nga gitawag kining maong mga luna nga sagrado. Sa ato pa, ang nakapahimong sagrado o balaan sa maong luna dili ang mga kagamitan nga anaa dinha kondili ang mga tawo nga gibalaan sa Amahan ug ang mga sagradong buluhaton nga ilang ginahimo sa maong luna.

Ang mga mosunod mao ang mga sagradong luna diha sa Simbahan:

a)      Altar. Ang pulong, “altar” nagpasabot sa usa ka taas nga dapit (altus – high; altares – a raised thing). Kini gipataas gikan sa salog ug gigahin alang sa himoong sakripisyo.

Ang ALTAR nagpadayag kang Kristo nga Altare Christus Est nga diin ang kasabutan, nga mao ang panagtagbo tali sa Dios ug sa iyang katawhan ginabag-o pinaagi sa hiniusang pagpangaon (meal) ug sakripisyo. Sa Altar ginahandum nato ang Katapusang Panihapon ni Kristo; kini “Lamesa ni Kristo” nga gihimong buhi ang sakripisyo didto sa kalbaryo nga makita diha sa dagway sa pan ug bino; “sentro sa pagpasalamat nga gihingpit sa pagsaulog sa Eukaristiya,” (GIRM 259).

b)      Ambo. Ang Ambo (Lectern) mao ang hustong dapit alang sa pagsangyaw sa Pulong sa Ginoo. Dinhi mahitabo ang panagestoryahanay (dialogue) tali sa Dios ug sa katawhan ug dapit usab sa panagtagbo (encounter). Busa ang pagpahimutang sa Ambo kinahanglan makita ang suod nga kalambigitan niini ug sa altar; kinahanglan adunay dgnidad ug igo-igo nga gidak-on nga sarang magamit sa duha ka tawo sa samang higayon – panahon sa pagbasa sa pasyon o sa pangaliya. Kini ipahimutang sa angayang dapit ug para lang gyud sa pagbasa, salmo responsoryo ug sa pagsangyaw sa pagkabanhan (“exulted”). Mahimo usab dinhi ang homiliya u gang pangaliya tungod kay kalambigitan niini sa Pulong sa Dios nga gisangyaw ug gisaulog. Tungod niini, ang komendador, ang pangulo sa awit ug ubang buluhaton nga walay kalambigitan sa pagsangyaw ug pagsaulog sa Pulong sa Dios, pangitaan og laing dapit (GIRM 681, 272 ug Lectionary 32-34).

c)      Lingkoranan sa Pangulo. Kini kinahanglan ipahimutang sa dapit diin makita sa tanan. Kinahanglan makita ang pangulo nga nangulo gayud. Kini nga lingkuran dili maghulagway sa usa ka trono (DOL 384).

d)     Dapit sa katawhan. Kinahanglan ipahimutang para ang katawhan makaapil og maayo sa kasaulogan (GIRM 257), madungog nila ang pari ug ubang mga alagad gikan sa ilang nahimutangan (GIRM 273). Sa matag kasaulogan, ang katlingban nga nagkatigum nagpadayag sa presensya sa Dios diha sa iyang katawhan – “Diin duha o tulo nga magkatigum sda akong ngalan, anaa ako sa ilang taliwala,” (Mat 18:20).

e)      Dapit sa mga mang-aawit. Ang Choir o “Schola” kabahin sa katilingban nga nagsaulog bisan tuod sila adunay espesyal nga buluhaton diha sa kasaulogan agi’g pagalagad sa nagkatigom nga katawhan. Busa ipahimutang sila sa dapit nga dili sila bulag sa katawhan apan mahimong dayag sa kadaghanan ang ilang buluhaton ug mahimo nila kini sa tumang kahapsay. Sa laing bahin ang “organ” ug uban pang mga gitugot nga instrument sa pagduyog ipahimutang sa hustong dapit aron sila makaduyog sa katawhan diha sa pag-awit ug madungog kun pagatugtogon (GIRM 274-275).

5.2.Mga Balaang Galamiton

Laing element sa arte ug palibot mao ang mga galamiton nga atong gigamit diha sa kasaulogan. Kini sila mga balaang Kini sila mga balaang galamiton tungod kay nagpadayag man sila og mga balaang kamatuoran. Sila ang mga mosunod:

a)      Pan ug Bino. Basi sa tradisyon, ang pan kinahanglan nga binuhat gikan sa harina o “wheat flour” nga sinagolan lamang og tubig ug walay patubo (GIRM 281, Canon 924 ug 926).

Tungod sa Eukaristiya, ang hostiya nga gamiton susama gayud sa dagway sa pan. Lignin kini u gang color ug gibag-on sama sa pan. Kinahanglan usab nga kini daling mapikas-pikas ug makasuyop aron maambitan sa katawhan, ilabi na kun mangalawat ginamit ang pan ug bino. Apan bantayan nga ang maong pan adunay kalainan sa dagway sa pan nga sagad gikaon sa mga panimalay matag adlaw (GIRM 283, Canon 924).

Sa samang pagkaagi, ang bino nga gamiton sa kasaulogan sa Eukaristiya kinahanglan nga gikan sa ubas, natural ug walay sagol nga bisan unsang matang sa chemical (Lk 22:18). Bantayan gayud nga ang bino dili mahimong suka ug ang pan mapan-os ug dili gahi nga pikas-pikason.

Ug kun ugaling human sa konsagrasyon, nabantayan sa pari nga nagmisa nga tubig ang nahuwad sa kalis inay nga bino, ihuwad niya ang tubig sa laing sudlanan, magbubo siya og bino ug tubig sa kalis, uug dayon iya kining konsagrahan nga linitok ang mga pulong nga may kalambigitan sa pagkonsagrar sa bino ngadto sa dugo ni Kristo. Ang pan dili na kinahanglan konsagrahan pag-usab (DOL 284-286).

b)      Balaang Sudlanan.

1)      Kalis. Kini mao ang sudlanan sa bino nga gigamit sa kasaulogan sa Misa. Kinahanglan nga binuhat kini gikan sa lig-ong mga materyales ug dili makasuyop og tubig kay mao man kini ang sudlanan sa dugo sa atong Ginoong Jesus (GIRM 291). Kun sa atong kaasinatian sa balay, ang kalis susama sa atong baso diin isulod nato ang tubig nga atong imnon human sa pagpangaon.

2)      Paten. Lignin kini, nipis ug medyo may gilawmon nga plato. Kini hinimo gikan sa lig-ong materyales sama sa gigamit paghimo sa kalis. Kinahanglan nga kini dako nga sarang ikapatong sa baba sa kalis. Dinhi gibutang ang pan nga konsagrahan, kasagaran ang pan nga kaonon sa pari diha sa kasaulogan (Dictionary of Liturgy [DL] p. 492). Kining maong sudlanan susama sa atong platito sa kan-anan.

3)      Ciborium. Ang pulong ciborium gikan sa pulong, “cibus” buot ipasabot, “nourishment” sa English. Kini sudlanan nga dunay tabon kay dinhi gisulod ang mga inandam nga pan alang sa pag-apod-apod sa pagkalawat (DL p. 113). Susama kini sa atong kan-on atol sa pagpangaon.

4)      Cruets. Kini duha ka gagmayng sudlanan sa tubig ug bino. Kini siya ipahimutang sa “credence table” ug dalhon lamang sa pari atol sa pagpresentar sa mga gasa. Kini susama sa sudlanan sa suka, tuyo o patis nga sagad natong makita sa mga kan-anan sa balay o sa mga restaurant/carinderia.

5)      Pyx. Usa ka gamayng sudlanan sa hostiya nga ipang-apo-apod ngadto sa mga masakiton nga sakop sa katilingban nga dili makaapil sa kasaulogan tungod sa ilang balatian. Kasagaran ang gidak-on ug porma niini sama sa relo nga panglalaki (DL p. 533). Sama kini sa atong mga sudlanan sa pagkaon nga atong ihatud sa mga masakitong sakop sa atong pamilya nga wala nato ika-uban sa pagpangaon.

6)      Monstrance. Kini sudlanan sa hostiya nga gamiton alang sa pagpasundayag sa lawas ni Kristo alang sa pagsimba o pagprocession nga sagad natong ginahimo atol sa kapistahan sa lawas ug Dugo ni Kristo (DL p. 436).

 

5.3.Krus. Kini timaan sa madaugong kasakit ug kamatayon ni Kristo. Naghulagway kini dili lamang sa iyang makaluwasnong buhat, apan sa kalig-on sa pagpas-an sa mga kasakitan sa kinabuhi diha sa atong pagsunod kang Kristo. Kini nagpasundayag sa kahalangdon ni Jesus hinungdan nga kini tataw nga timaan natong mga kristohanon ilabi na atol sa bisan unsa natong mga kasaulogan. Tungod  sa kahalangdon ni Jesus hinungdan nga kini tataw nga timaan natong mga kristohanon ilabi na atol sa bisan unsa natong mga kasaulogan. Tungod niini, “kinahanglan nga dunay krus sa matag kasaulogan nga daling makita sa kadaghanan. Mahimo nga kini ipahiluna sa altar o sa duol niini,” (GIRM 270).

5.4.Liturhikanhong Libro

Kini sila mao ang mga libro nga gilangkoban sa mga pulong nga awiton o ibungat, mga rito nga himoon ug mga lagda nga sugdon alang sa katilingbanong pagsimba sa katawhan (DL p. 433) ngaq giaprobahan sa mga namunoan sa simbahan. Ang mga mosunod mao ang mga libro nga gigamit sa kasaulogan sa liturhiya:

a)      Missal. Kining maong libro gilangkoban sa mga basahon nga isangyaw ug pag-ampo nga ibungat sa ksaulogan sa Misa (DL p. 433).

b)      Pontifical. Kini galamiton sa Obispo nga gilangkoban sa rito ug mga pag-ampo nga himuon ug ibungat sa Obispo atol sa mga kasaulogan nga siya maoy mangulo sama sa ordinasyon, pagkumpirma, pagkonsagrar sa simbahan, altar ug sementeryo ug uban pang mga kasaulogan sa pagpanalangin (DL p. 511).

c)      Roman Ritual. Kining maong libro gilangkoban sa rito alang sa pagsaulog sa mga sakramento, sacramental ug uban pang mga nga pangulohan sa pari (DL p. 555).

d)     Liturhiya sa mga Takna o Pag-ampo sa katawhan sa Dios. Kini nailhan nga “breviary” nga kasagaran gigamit sa mga pari ug mga relihiyoso. Gilangkoban kini sa mga pag-ampo sa katawhan sama sa salmo, mga alawiton, mga basahon gikan sa Balaang Kasulatan o sinulat sa mga inilang mga espirituhanong manunulat. Kasagaran kini ginaawit o ginabungat aron pagpasalamat ug pagsimba sa Ginoo ug paghangyo kaniya nga ipadayon niya ang iyang makaluwasnong buhat dinhi ug pinaagi kanato (DL p. 360-361).

e)      Sakramentaryo. Kini gilangkoban sa mga pag-ampo nga ibungat sa pangulo diha sa kasaulogan sa Misa panahon sa Dominggo, mga adlaw’ng semana, mga kapistahan, ug uban pang mga okasyon nga may kalambigitan sa kasaulogan sa Misa sama sa Bunyag, kasal ug uban pa (DL p. 561).

f)       Leksyonaryo. Kini ang libro sa mga basahon. Dinhi nahipatik ang mga pinili ug hinan-ay nga basahon nga isangyaw atol sa kasaulogan sa pulong sa Misa 9DL p. 312). Dunay leksyonaryo usab nga gihikay alang sa kasaulogan diha sa mga kapilya sa GKK, ilabi na sa adlaw’ng Dominggo.

g)      Libro sa Ebanghelaryo o Evangeliary. Kini linain nga libro nga gilangkoban sa mga ebanghelyo nga isangyaw sa Obispo, pari o deakono human sa nahaunang mga basahon ug sa dili pa ang homiliya (DL o. 313).

 

5.5.Mga Balaang Bisti

a)      Alba. Ang alba (sotana) usa ka putting bisti nga may gitas-on gikan sa may abaga hangtud ibabaw dyutay sa till ug dunay taas nga bukton nga sagad ginasul-ob sa mga kaparian atol sa pagsaulog sa liturhiya. Kini nagtimaan sa kaputli ilabi na diha sa pagsaulog sa Misa (DL p. 20).

b)      Kasulya. Kini usa ka bisti nga walay bukton nga ginasul-ob sa pangulo ibabaw sa alba panahon sa kasaulogan sa Misa. Daw sama kini sa tolda (tent) nga motabon sa tibook lawas sa pangulo sa Misa ug abli kini diha sa may ibabaw aron nga kasudlan sa ulo sa mosul-ob niini (DL p. 98-99). Kini nagsimbolo sa kupo ni Kristo nga gipasul-ob ni Pilato kaniya diin siya giila nga “Hari sa mga Judeyo.” Nagsimbolo usab kini sa paghigugma ug pagpanalipod.

c)      Estola. Kini usa ka bisti nga taas, may gilapdon nga sagad upat (4) ka pulgada ug ginasul-ob kini libot sa liog sa mga Obispo ug mga pari. Ang estola usab sa Diakono ginasul-ob nga pinababag gikan sa walang abaga paubos ngadto tuong hawak. Kini gigamit diha sa ilang pagsaulog sa Misa, mga sakramento ug sacramental ug uban pang mga kasaulogan sa pagsimba. Kini nagtimaan sa awtoridad ug dignidad sa Obispo, pari ug diakono diha sa ilang pagsaulog sa liturhiya. Nagsimbolo usab kini sa yugo ni Kristo ug sa pagkamakugihon diha sa ilang mga buluhaton.

d)     Surplice. Kini usa ka luag nga bisti, adunay halapad ug loag nga bukton ug may gitas-on nga hapit moabot sa tuhod. Kini sagad nga ginasul-ob sa mga “Master of Ceremony”

e)      Humeral veil. Kini usa ka lapad ng bisti nga sagad may dekorasyon nga ginasul-ob ibabaw sa abaga ug ikupo. Gigamit kini sa pagtabon sa kamot diha sa paghikap o pagbitbit sa monstrance panahon sa “benediction,” procession ug pagbalhin sa santos nga Eukaristiya (DL p. 633).

f)       Kapa. Kini may gilinginon nga bisti, abli sa atubangan apan may butones sa may dughan ug may gitas-on nga hapit moabot sa tiil nga daw sagang (shield) ang dagway. Kini sagad gigamit atol procession, “benediction” ug sa uban pang mga kasaulogan sumala sa nahipatik sa matag rito (DL p. 141). Nagsimbolo usab kini sa kadaugan ug kaputli.

Ang color niining maong mga bisti sumala sa naadan nga mga color. Apan, panahon sa mga mas solemning kasaulogan mahimong mogamit og mas halangdong bisti bisan dili kini sumala sa color sa maong okasyon (GIRM 308-309).

5.5.1. Ang Kahulugan sa mga Color diah sa Liturhiya

Ang color usa ka gamhanang himan sa komunikasyon. Pinaagi niini mapadayag sa tawo ang iyang kinahiladmang kahimtang ug diwa, emosyonal man o espirituhanon. Ang nagkadaiyang mga color diha sa liturhiya nagadayag sa mga kamatuoran nga atong gisaulog ug magtabang kanato sa pagsimba sa Dios sumala sa diwa sa panahon o okasyon nga atong ginasaulog.

a)      Puti (White). Kini nagpadayag sa kalipay, kamaya ug paghudyaka. Kini gigamit sa kapanahonan sa pasko sa pagkabanhaw ug pagkatawo, sa mga pangillin o pyesta sa Ginoo ug sa mga kapistahan sa mga santos nga dili martir. Gigamit usab kini sa kasaulogan sa kristohanong paglubong tungod kay nagsimbolo man kini sa pagkabanhaw sa Ginoo.

b)      Pula (Red). Kini nagpadayag sa kalayo nga maoy kasagarang simbolo sa Espiritu Santo. Mao nga kini gigamit sa kasaulogan sa Espiritu Santo sama sa Dominggo sa Pentekostes, pagkumpirma ug mga Misa pahinungod sa Espiritu Santo. Nagkahulugan usab kini og dugo nga giula sa mga martir tungod sa ilang pagtoo ug lagsunod sa dalan ni Kristo. Mao nga gigamit usab kini sa kasaulogan sa pangilin sa mga martir ug ingon man usab sa Byernes Santo diin gisaulog nato ang pag-ula ni Kristo sa iyang dugo alang sa atong kaluwasan.

c)      Ube (Violet or Purple). Kini nagpadayag sa paghinulsol, pagbasol ug paglaum. Nan, gigamit kini sa kapanahonan sa Adbyento ug Kwaresma nga maoy panahon nga gitakda alang niini. Mahimo usab kining gamiton sa mga Misa sa minatay.

d)     Berde (Green). Kini nagpadayag sa kinabuhi, paglaum ug pagpaabot. Mao nga sagad kini sa Ordinaryong Panahon sa Tuig.

e)      Itum (Black). Kini nagpadayag sa kasubo. Padayon kini nga gigamit sa ksaulogan sa paglubong ug mga Misa sa minatay bisan tuod kun ang color nga puti mao nay sagad gigamit sa pagkakaron atol niining mga nahisgutang kasaulogan.

f)       Pughaw’ng Pula o Rosas (Pink or Rose). Kini usa ka “optional” nga color nga mahimong gamiton sa mga Dominggo sa kapanahonan sa Adbyento ug Kwaresma – Ikatulong Dominggo sa Adbyento (Gaudete Sunday) ug Ikaupat nga Dominggo sa Kwaresma (Laetare Sunday).

g) Bulawan o Dilaw (Gold or Yellow). Dili gayud kini usa ka liturhikanhong color apan makadugang kini sa kasolemni sa mga espesyal nga okasyon. Hinungdan nga ang GIRM 309 nag-ingon: “Sa mga solemning panahon o okasyon, mahimong mogamit og laing color bisan kun dili kini mao ang color nga nahatukma sa maong adlaw.

 

5.6.Mga Sagradong Panapton

a)      Corporal. Kini usa ka kwadradong panapton diin dinhi ipatong ang pan ug bino diha sa kasaulogan sa Misa (DL 143). Kasagaran kini 20 pulgadas ang iyang pagkakwadrado.

b)      Purificator. Kini puti nga panapton ug sagad may krus sa tunga. Gigamit kini sa paghinlo sa chalice, paten ug ciborium sa dayong tapos sa kasaulogan sa Misa (DL p. 533).

c)      Pall. Kini usa ka kwadrado ug pinagahi nga panapton nga sagad gigamit ingon nga tabon sa chalice o ciborium aron kalikayan nga mahulogan kini og hugaw o mga insekto (DL p. 476).

d)     Trapo sa kamot. Sa English, kini finger/hand towel. Kini gigamit aron pagpa-uga sa kamot sa pari human sa paghugas.

e)      Altar Cloth. Kini ginatabon sa altar ingon nga usa ka mantil sa lamisa nga kan-anan. Maghatag kini’g dugang dignidad sa altar ingon nga lamesa sa Ginoo.

 

5.7.Insenso. Kini gigamit isip dayag nga “timaan sa pag-ampo ug paghalad sa katawhan ngadto sa Ginoo,” (GIRM 51). Tungod niini, kinahanglan nga ang insenso humot ug magpadayag gayud sa pag-ampo ug paghalad sa simbahan ngadto sa Dios.

 

5.8.Kandila. Kini nagpadayag kang Kristo ingon nga kahayag sa kalibutan. Tungod niini, labing mayo nga kini ipahimutang nga may kaugalingon niyang butanganan sa dapit diha sa sanctuary nga makita sa kadaghanan ug dili makababag sa panan-aw sa mga tawo diha sa altar, ambo ug lingkoranan sa pangulo. Ang gidaghanon sa kandila mag-agad sa okasyon o panahon nga gisaulog (EACW 89). Sa panahon sa pasko sa pagkabanhaw, ang Kandila sa Pagkabanhaw (Paschal Candle) kinahanglan ipahimutang sa dapit nga dali siyang makita ug maklaro ang iyang kahulugan ingon nga kandila sa mga kandila. Labing maayo nga ipahimutang kini dapit sa bunyagan o taliwala sa Altar ug sa Ambo.

5.9.Mga Dekorasyon o Dayandayan.

 

a)      Mga Banner ug uban pang Dayandayan (Banners and Hangings). Sila mga dayandayan kansang katuyoan mao ang pagpadayag sa espirituahanong kamatuoran nga gisaulog. Mao nga sila hikayon ug ipahimutang sa dapit nga dili sila makababag sa panan-aw sa katawhan nganha sa mga dapit nga bililhon diha sa kasaulogan sama sa Altar, Ambo ug lingkoranan sa Pangulo.

Ang maayong pagkahikay nga “banners” ug “hangings” daku og ikatampo diha sa pagpaanindot sa simbahan ug sa paghatag og dugang dignidad sa kasaulogan. Busa kini sila dili himuon nga “signboard” aron ipadayag ang kahibalo sa tawo. dili usab daghanon ang mga pulong nga isulat niini ug dili usab kinahanglan nga ipahimutang kini sa may sanctuary (LE pp. 32-35).

b) Bulak. Kini dayag nga timaan sa atong kalipay diha kang Kristo ug nagpahayag usab sa atong pagpasalamat sa Dios tungod sa gasa sa kinabuhi ug kinaiyahan nga siya maoy nagbuhat. Ang ilang pagkaanaa diha sa kasaulogan nagpaklaro sa diwa sa kasaulogan ug sa kaanindot sa kinaiyahan. Tungod niini, gamiton nato ang mga bulak sumala sa ilang katuyoan ug likayan ang bisan unsang matang sa artipisyal o dili haum nga paggamit niini diha sa atong pagsimba. Busa, ang mga bulak, tanom o kahoy nga ipahimutang kinahanglan nga tinuod nga bulak, tanom o kahoy. Sila ipahimutang sa dapit nga dili sila makababag sa panan-aw ngadto sa altar, ambo ug lingkoranan sa pangulo. Likayan usab ang pagbutang og naghinobrang mga bulak, tanom o kahoy (EACW 102-103).

 

6. Choosing a Theme

a. The theme of a particular Sunday is based on 3 main considerations: the Seasons of the Year, the Feast being celebrated and the Gospel message that should be given prominence.

b. A theme is a kind of ad (advertisement). Ads sell ideas and promote products.

c. A theme has a message and such message should be clear and attractive.

d. A theme should be chosen that is most fitting for the occasion and just not any theme. Each theme should have the following characteristics:

i. It should be short, precise and easily remembered (simple and not too long)

ii. It should be stated in complete sentence (not mere phrases)

iii. If direct quotation from the Gospel, statement should be faithful to the original text (not a misquotation of what Christ said, nor twisting of Christ’s words).

iv. If interpretation of the gospel text, statement should convey  correct message (not hazy, ambivalent, or subject to wrong interpretation).

7. Preparing an Introduction

a.       First, read the Ordo. Second, read and study the readings, more particularly, the Sunday gospel. Third, get the main idea or lesson and formulate your introduction.

b.      Like the theme, the introduction must preserve the unity of the celebration. And so, the introduction must take into consideration the following factors: the occasion, the feast or Sunday that is being celebrated, the theme and the homily of the priest-celebrant.

c.       An Introduction is neither a catechesis nor a homily. It is not the purpose of an introduction to teach or preempt the homily of the priest. So, don’t ever try to do it.

An Introduction must have the following characteristics:

i.      It should be short and not too long

ii.      It must not be too wordy or moralizing

iii.      It must set the tone and mood of the celebration

8. Preparing the Prayer of the Faithful

Don’t make it too long. At the most five or six intentions are to be made. The sequences of intentions are as follows: 1) for the Church, 2) for public authorities, 3) for any kind of difficulty, 4) for the local community, and 5) others.

9. Arranging the Presentation of Gifts (Offertory Procession)

There are no fixed rules for this one. So we use the principle of practicality. For big churches and parishes it is practical to bring the offerings of bread and wine immediately or as soon as the offertory song begins, without waiting for the collection to end. The idea is in order not to delay the Mass. The collections maybe brought to the sanctuary later.

IV. LITURGICAL MUSIC

1.      Liturgical Music is concerned with songs, hymns and accompaniment used at Mass. The general aim of sacred music is the glory of God and the sanctification and edification of the faithful. More particularly sacred music adds to the beauty and solemnity of the liturgical celebration.

2.      Because music in the liturgy is for the glory and honor of God, it must contain qualities of sanctity and goodness of form. It must be holy, different from other secular music.

3.       Because music in the liturgy is for the sanctification and edification of the faithful, it must be able to lift up their hearts and minds to God and inspire them to do greater things.

1. Kinds of Music in the Liturgy

The terms used are quite confusing: church music, religious music, worship music, sacred music, liturgical music, etc. it must be noted that not all such kinds of music are fit for use in the liturgy.

So, maybe we have to use our own classification. We can classify the music that we are using in the liturgy today as catechetical music, meditative music and liturgical music.

Catechetical music is for teaching Christian truths and doctrine, like: Ang mga Langgam. Meditative music is used for recollections and seminars, like: Ang Buta. Liturgical Music is music using the text of the liturgy, like: Ginoo, malooy ka; Himaya sa Dios.

OR. Ang atong kasinatian nagtug-an nga dunay nagkadaiyang matang sa musika. Anaa kining, “love music,” “jazz,” “disco,” ug uban pa. Mao usab kini diha sa atong kasinatian sa simbahan. Busa aron masabtan nato kun unsa gayud kining liturhikanhong musika diha sa simbahan, ang kahulugan sa matag usa niini ug ang kalainan niini diha sa liturhikanhong musika.

a)      Simabahanong Musika (Church Music). Kini ang sagad mga itawag sa musika nga gigamit diha sa katilingbanong pagsimba sa Dios, debosyonal man o liturhikanhon nga matang sa pagsimba. Example: Kay Kita Usa Ra.

b)      Relihiyosong Musika (Religious Music). Kini ang matang sa awit kansang mga pulong dunay relihiyosong tema o kahulugan. Example: Lift Up Your Hands o Lupa.

c)      Sagradong Musika (Sacred Music). Kini mao ang opisyal nga pulong nga gigamit sa mga dokumento sa simbahan alang niadtong mga musika nga gihikay alang sa kasaulogan sa liturhiya (Musicam Sacram). Example: Daygon ta ang Ginoo.

d)     Liturhiknahong Musika (Liturgical Music). Kini mao ang matang sa musika nga nahimong kabahin sa lihok sa liturhiya. Nagpahayag kini sa kinaiya sa rito kansang kahulugan naggikan usab sa liturhiya. Example: Santos.

2. Ang Katuyoan sa Liturhikanhong Musika

a)      Paghimo sa kasaulogan nga mas masabtan, nindot, makahuloganon ug mabungahon

b)      Paglig-on sa kahiusa ug pagpadayag sa pagbati ug kahimtang sa katawhan nga nagkatigum sa pagsimba

c)      Paghatag kahulugan sa liturhikanhong lihok

d)     Pagpahayag sa pagtulon-an sa atong pagtoo

e)      Ug labaw sa tanan, Pagdayeg ug pagsimba sa Dios

3. Mga Elemento sa Liturhikanhong Musika

Ang lagda sa liturhiya diha sa sacrosanctum Concilium no. 123 nag-ila sa musika nga kabahin sa liturhiya. Gihatagn usab og kahulugan niini ang musika ingon nga usa ka awit nga nahiusa sa pulong sa liturhiya. Nag-ongon usab ang maong lagda nga kinahanglan nga ang liturhikanhong musika mahiusa ug mahilambigit sa nagkalainlaing bahin sa rito. Nagkanayon usab kini nga ang liturhikanhong musika ingon nga usa ka matang sa arte (art form) kinahanglan nga mag-angkon sa kalidad sa usa ka maayong musika.

a)      Ang matood nga Diwa sa Musika diha sa liturhiya. Ang musika dili labaw sa liturhiya. Kinahanglan tahuron niini ang kinaiya sa liturhiya isip usa ka buhat sa pagsimba sa katawhan nga nagkatigum. Kini tungod kay ang pagkasimbahanon maoy sukaranan sa matood nga diwa sa liturhiya. Nagpasabot kini nga ang katawhan mao ang “usa, balaan, katoliko ug apostolikanhong” simbahan nga nagkatigum sa pag-ampo.

b)      Ang kalambigitan tali sa Musika ug Liturhiya. Laing prinsipyo sa liturhikanhong musika mao nga kini kinahanglan haum sa kinaiya ug kahulugan sa tibook liturhiya ug sa matag bahin sa rito. Kini moduyog sa hinayhinay nga pagpadayag sa liturhikanhong lihok nga ginahimo aron mapadayag ang kahulugan sa matag lihok.

c)      Ang aktibo nga pag-apil. Usa sa katuyoan sa kabag-ohan sa liturhiya mao ang aktibo nga pag-apil sa usa’g-usa diha sa kasaulogan. Mao kini ang giingon sa lagda sa liturhiya artikulo 113 nga tataw nga nagkanayon, “Ang liturhiya mas makahuluganon kun kini gisaulog uban sa awit diin ang mga alagad miapil sa maong buhat u gang katawhan usab aktibo nga nagaapil sa maong pag-awit.”

4. Rules for Music in the Liturgy

a.       For liturgical music, rules are stricter. The wordings of the music must conform with the prescribed texts and form as used in the liturgy. (Songs like: Kaloy-i kami Ginoo, Our Father who art in heaven – do not conform these rules).

b.      For catechetical and meditative music the rules are less strict. They may be used for other parts of the Mass, like: entrance, offertory and recessional, as long as they take into consideration the occasion and the participation at Mass.

5. Role of Choir and Musical Accompaniment

a.       The GIRM has recognized the importance of choirs in the Music Ministry of the Liturgy. But the GIRM has also clarified that the role of the choir us supportive, that is, to assist the people in singing as part of their active participation in the liturgy. Consequently, a choir should not dominate or monopolize the singing but should encourage and flow the people to sing.

b.      Likewise, musical instruments also have supportive role. When playing musical accompaniment they never be dominant or too loud. While other instruments are allowed the organ is still recognized as the best instrument for church music. Distinction, however, is to be made between an organ and a keyboard. A keyboard is not an organ in the proper sense of the word. An organ has a more refined sound than a keyboard. It is also much bigger and costly, but a more fitting instrument for worship.

c.       The nature of the presidential texts demands that they be spoken in a loud and clear voice and that everyone present listen with attention. While the priest is speaking these texts, there should be no other prayer or liturgical song and the organ or other instruments should not be played (GIRM 32).

6. The Chant of the Responsorial Psalm

Our main objective here is to teach how to improvise simple chants for the Responsorial Psalm

6.1.What is Chant?

According to the dictionary, Chant is short series of words or sounds that are sung in reciting tone. Chant maybe described as half singing and half speaking. This method of singing is called chanting.

Chanting is found in various cultures and religions, but it is used more extensively in the Roman Catholic Church. The kind of chanting that has been developed by the Catholic Church is now called Gregorian chant.

Gregorian chant has been named after Pope Gregory I (590-604) but more likely it developed from early chants of the Church, particularly from Old Roman chant and the Gallican (French) chant. Other chants existing today are the Ambrosian and the Mozarabic chants.

The origin of the chant goes back to early Christian times. Its roots can be traced back Hebraic (Jewish), Greek and Latin influences. Early chant was monophonic and unaccompanied. Also, early chant was sung by males, clergy and choirs.

Through the years, the use of chanting has greatly diminished in the Church. But recently, the GIRM has declared that chanting is the music most suitable for worship and that Gregorian chant should be used especially in the singing of the Responsorial Psalm.

6.2.What is Responsorial Psalm?

The Responsorial Psalm is a prayer-response to the First Reading. Its text, according to GIRM, must be taken from the Lectionary. As much as possible, it should be sung with the cantor (psalmist) chanting the verses from the ambo and the people singing the response.

Preferably, any unnecessary introductions such as “The response is….” should be omitted. Also saying, “Response” or bowing the head at the end of every verse is unnecessary. A suitable voice inflection can indicate when the people may come in with the response.

6.3.How should the Responsorial Psalm be chanted?

According to the GIRM, the style best suited for the chanting of the Responsorial Psalm is the Gregorian chant. Gregorian chant, especially the syllabic chanting, is best suited for chanting. This style is simple, does not need any accompaniment and can easily be learned.

6.4.How is the Responsorial Psalm chanted in the Gregorian chant?

First, consider the text. Text is more important than music. Music is built around the text. The purpose of music is to bring out the message of the text and not to cover it. Charity and intelligibility of the text should always be the main concern of correct chanting.

Second, study the text. Mark the accent of the words in the text. Gregorian chant is built on a dominant tone which is monadic (same tone) and recitative (one word per syllable). The stress and accents of the words are indicated as ups and down added to the dominant tone.

Third, plan or design your chant using previously learned tune models or make your own improvised tune. Remember there is no such thing as prescribed tune for the Responsorial Psalm. Tunes are invented and new chant tunes are being encouraged.

Some suggestions:

1.      Use chants that have simple vocal melody and which can easily be learned by the people.

2.      Vary the tune used for the Responsorial Psalm. Do not use the same tune over and over again. People will easily get tired of it.

3.      Learn four or five different tunes for the Responsorial Psalm and teach the people to sing these tunes.

4.      Train more psalmists to chant the verses of the Responsorial Psalm. Avoid having the same person leading Sunday after Sunday. That would be monopoly and over-exposure.

4.4.Various Models of Plain Chant Tunes:

4.4.1. RECTO TONO or Straight Tone Model. This is the most simple and basic tune sung on a single, recitative and dominant note. This model is sung like this: Sol, sol / sol, sol, sol, sol, / Sol, sol, sol, sol, / (straight)

Variation: Sol, sol, / sol, sol, sol, fa sol, sol, / Sol, sol, sol, sol, fa, mi (down)

4.4.2. TWO STEPS UP MODEL. This model is sung like this: Mi, mi, mi, fa, sol / Sol, sol, sol, fa, mi (up and down)

 

4.4.3. ONE STEP MODEL. This model is sung like this: Sol, sol, sol, sol, la / La, la, la, la, sol (up and down)

 

4.4.4. ONE STEP UP AND ONE STEP DOWN MODEL. This model is sung like this: Sol, sol, sol, sol, la / Fa, fa, fa, fa, sol (up, down and up)

 

VARIED MODELS: These models are sung as follows:

Sol, sol, sol, sol, la / Fa, fa, fa, fa, sol (up)

Mi, mi, mi, mi, fa / Re, re, re, re, mi (down)

Mi, mi,mi, fa, sol / La, la, la, mi (up)

Do, do, fa, mi, re / Ti, ti,ti, mi, re, do (down)

La, la, la, (b)ti, do / Re, re, re, re, la / (up)

Fa, fa, (b)ti, la, sol / Mi, mi, la, sol, fa

Response tune: Mi, mi, mi, re, do, re / (down)

Re, re, re, do, ti, do

Verse tune: Do, do, do, re, mi, sol, sol / (up)

Fa, fa, fa, sol, la, sol /

Do, do, do, re, mi, sol, sol /

Fa, fa, fa, sol, la, sol ®

Response tune: La, #fa / fa. fa. mi. ri.  mi. ri. mi. mi / (up, down)

La, mi / mi. mi, mi, mi, re #do, re, re

Verse tune: La, re / re, re, mi, #fa, la, la / (up)

La, sol / sol, sol, la, ti, la, la /

La, re / re, re, mi, #fa, la, la /

La, sol / sol, la, ti, la, la ®

Response tune: La, la, la, ti, do, sol (up)

Fa, fa, fa, mi, re, do (down)

Verse tune: Mi, mi, mi, do, mi, sol / (down, up)

Fa, fa, fa, sol, la, sol /

Mi, mi, mi, do, mi, sol / (down, up)

La, la, la, ti, do, ti ®

Response tune: Fa, fa, fa, fa, sol / (up)

Mi, mi, mi, mi, fa

Verse tune: La, la, la, sol, fa / Fa, fa, fa, fa, sol / (down, up)

(b)Ti, ti, ti, la, sol / Sol, sol, sol, fa, la

G. PARTS OF THE MASS

A.    Introductory Rites

1.      Entrance Song – may be sung entirely by the people, or alternatively by the choir and the people or by the choir alone.

2.      Lord, Have Mercy Kyrie) – maybe sung entirely by the people or alternatively by the choir and people. If not sung, it is said by all.

3.      Glory to God (Gloria) – may be sung entirely by the people or alternatively by the choir and the people or by the choir alone. If not sung, it is recited by all, together or in alternation.

 

B.     Litrugy of the Word

1.      Responsorial Psalm – preferably it is to be sung alternatively by the people and the cantor, with the cantor singing the verses and the people singing the response. It may also be sung entirely by the people straight through without the response or by the cantor or choir alone. If not sung, the responsorial psalm is to be recited. (Note:  There is no prescribed tune for the responsorial Psalm. It is simply invented).

2.      Alleluia or Gospel Acclamation – the alleluia is to be sung by all. The alleluia verse is sung by the cantor or choir. If the verse is not sung it is simply omitted. During Lent, other acclamations maybe used. If not sung, these acclamations are also omitted.

3.      Profession of Faith (Credo) – maybe sung but preferably recited.

4.      General Intercessions – the intercessions maybe recited or chanted, the response may likewise be recited, chanted or sung.

 

C.     Preparation of the Gifts

The options for this part are varied. The assembly may sing but there are other options open. The people may remain silent or an instrumental music maybe played, or a soloist or choir may sing or any combination of the above is allowed.

D.    Eucharistic Prayer

1.      Sanctus-Benedictus – preferably suns by all. If not sung, it is recited.

2.      Memorial Acclamation – preferably sung by all. If not, it is recited.

3.      Great Amen – preferably sung by the assembly. If sung, it may be repeated and embellished for emphasis. If not sung, it is recited.

 

E.     Communion

1.      Lord’s Prayer (Our Father) – preferably sung by the assembly. If not, it is recited.

2.      Lamb of God (Agnus Dei) – maybe sung by all, or sung by cantor and choir with people responding, ‘Have mercy on us,” “Grant us peace.”

3.      Communion Music – music should be communitarian, expressing joy of heart for receiving Christ’s Body.

Note: During this part it is not necessary that the people stay until the singing has ended. People can already leave even if the people and/or choir are still singing.

F.      Dismissal Rites

Concluding Music – Since this is no longer considered part of the liturgy, the following options are possible: the people leave in silence, an instrumental music is played, the choir alone sings and the people sing a recessional song.

Note: During this part it is not necessary that the people stay until the singing has ended. People can already leave even if the people or choir are still singing.

5. Music for Processions

 

a.       Entrance for Procession – Entrance song is sung as soon as signal to start is given. Song should end when the priest has reached his chair and is ready to begin the opening rites.

b.      Gospel Procession – music that accompanies this procession is the “alleluia.” This procession is usually done during solemn occasions.

c.       Presentation of the Gifts (Offertory Procession) - music begins after the General Intercessions and should end when the priest has received the offerings of bread and wine.

d.      Communion Precession – song begins as soon as the priest has finished his communion and should end when there is no more communicant. The cleansing of the chalice is no longer part of communion.

e.       Recessional Procession – music begins when the priest has finished saying, “Go in peace” and the people responded, “Thanks be to God.” There is no need for the people to stay for the singing. They can already leave.

6. Other Liturgical Rules

a.       Lex orandi, lex credenda – The law of prayer is the law of belief. We pray what we believe. We worship according to what we believe.

b.      Law of Precedence –In procession, the most important person should be last. (That is why the bishop or priest comes last). Exception: Corpus Christi and Palm Sunday procession when the priest goes first and people follow. At communion, it is the reverse. The priest takes communion first, the ministers after.

c.       Rule at Placement of the Coffin before the Altar –your place at Mass determines your place before the altar. For priests the head faces the people. For the lay faithful, the head is towards the altar.

 

 

 

Part IV: SACRAMENTS AND SACRAMENTALS (This was given during Phase II Seminar)

A. Situating

Opening Activity:

1.      Give each participant a copy of the drawing. Ask them to write down the first thing that comes to their minds when they see the drawing. Tell them to write their answer on the First Column on the blank sheet of paper. Break the participants into small groups of five to seven members. Let them share their answers to the group.

2.      After everybody have shared, ask the participants to individually reflect on the deeper meaning of each drawing. Write briefly their answers on the Second Column and share again their answers to the group. This time they may only choose what they want to share. If there are those who want to share all their reflections, they may do so.

Drawing Nos. Column I Column II
1. Sunrise New day
2. Water Thirsty
3. Ring Bond
4. Fire Heat
5. “Ako ay Pilipino” Patriotic
6. Balot Filipino
7. Candle Light
8. Handshake Friendship

 

 

B. Deepening and Purifying of Responses:

These are some of your answers to our first activity. All these came into your mind when you see the drawings for the first time.

How about the second activity? When you were asked to reflect on the deeper meaning of the drawings for you, what comes into your mind or how do you feel about each or all of them?

Solicit answers:

The spiritual realities are communicated through symbols. There are realities in our lives which can only be communicated through by signs. Take for example human affection. How would you know that a man/woman is attracted to you?

  • He always looks at me
  • He gives me extra attention
  • He makes way to be noticed
  • He is generous, thoughtful and caring
  • He invites me for a dinner or a visit to their house
  • He introduces me to his family and friends

Signs and symbols are very important components of human life. Our tendency for rituals, gestures and symbols. We express our inner realities through them and we communicate by them.

The Sacraments are signs which are close to our human lives because they mark the different stages of life from birth to death.

IV. Doctrinal Input:

A. Proclamation of the Christian Message:

I. The History and Development of the Sacraments and Sacramentals:

 

Sacraments and Sacramentals have always been with the Church since the early times. But what is not known is that it took more than a thousand years (12 centuries) for the Church to clarify the nature of the Sacraments and Sacramentals and to establish the distinction between them. Up to the 12th century, the general term used to described both Sacraments and Sacramentals was the word, “sacramentum” which is a Latin translation of the Greek word, “mysterion” or ‘mystery.

The word, ‘sacramentum’ has a very broad meaning. It can refer to almost anything, from any ritual rite to any sacred sign or thing. Sacramentum can refer to words, actions, rites and practices used in religious ceremonies.

During the Middle Ages, attempts were made to clarify the nature and distinction between the Sacraments and Sacramentals. While it was recognized that some of the Church’s ceremonies were more important than others. Yet there was no agreement as to what should be considered sacraments and what should be considered sacramentals. Even theologians were divided as to the number of Sacraments. Some claim there were five, other seven or 12, even all the way up to 30.

The question was finally settled in the 13th century by the Second general Council of Lyons in 1274 and by the Council of Florence in 1430 which declared that seven of these ceremonies were more important than the rest, namely, baptism, confirmation Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, holy orders and matrimony. These were the main sacraments because they were instituted by Christ. All the rests which were not included in the list were to be called sacramentals to differentiate them from the sacraments.

Later Developments:

The Council of Trent the 16th century (1545-63) in fixed the number of sacraments to seven, no more, no less. This limited view of the sacraments was revised by Vatican II which put the sacraments in proper perspective.

Vatican II says that the secraments are not limited to the seven sacraments but that there are levels in the sacraments. At the highest level is Christ, the first or primordial sacrament. Next to Christ is the Church, the sacrament of salvation, the fundamental sacrament. Christ is Sacrament because He is the sign of the encounter between God and man. The Church is sacrament because she is the sign of unity with God and unity of all peoples. Next to the Church are the seven sacraments that are the sacraments of Christ and of His Body, the Church.

A. What is Sacrament?

1.      Ang pulong “sakramento” naggikan sa Latin nga, “sacramentum” nga ang buot ipasabot “balaan” (sacred) o “pakabalaanon” (to make sacred). Ang uban pang mga pulong nga mahimong gamiton mao ang “mystery,” “sacred mysteries” o “holy sacraments.”

2.      Ang mga Sakramento, sumala sa pagsabot sa Simbahan, mga epektibong timailhan sa grasya, nga gitukod ni Kristo ug gitugyan sa Simbahan, kansang paagi ang kinabuhing diosnon gihatag kanato (CCC 1131). Ang Sakramento usa ka “gawasnon nga timailhan nga gitukod ni Kristo aron paghatag sa grasya.”

3.      Ang mga Sakramento mga timailhan, apan dili kini sila mga ordinaryong timailhan; sila mga epektibong timailhan tungod kay aduna silay epekto. Ang epekto sa mga Sakramento naggikan sa pagdugtong sa material nga mga butang nga gigamit (matter) sa mga pulong (form), sa usa ka aksyon nga gihimo sa usa ka tinugyanan mga ministro sa nga sa Simbahan.

4.      Ang Vatican II mipadayag nga ang mga Sakramento dili lamang limitado sa pito ka Sakramento kondili adunay mga levels sa mga Sakramento. Sa itaas nga level mao si Kristo, ang una ug pinakataas nga Sakramento (the primordial Sacrament). Mosunod kay Kristo mao ang Simbahan, ang Sakramento sa kaluwasan (the fundamental Sacrament). Si Kristo Sakramento tungod kay siya mao ang timailhan sa panagtagbo (encounter) sa tawo ug sa Dios. Ang Simbahan Sakramento tungod kay siya mao ang timailhan sa paghiusa sa Dios ug sa panaghiusa sa tanang katawhan. Mosunod sa Simbahan mao ang pito ka mga Sakramento nga mao ang mga Sakramento ni Kristo ug sa Simbahan.

5.      Ang mga Sakramento mao ang nagapadayon nga mga buhat sa kaluwasan ni Kristo sa kalibutan karon. Ang mga Sakramento mga higayon sa panagtagbo sa tawo ug sa Dios. Apan kini nga mga buhat sa kaluwasan ni Kristo ug ang panagtagbo sa tawo ug sa Dios, nagakahinabo diha sa mga Sakramento pinaagi sa Simbahan.

B. The Seven Sacraments:

 

1.      Usually, however, the word ‘Sacrament’ refers to the Seven Liturgical Rites which are Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Holy Order, Matrimony, Penance and the Anointing of the Sick. We shall explain these Sacraments in detail:

2.      There are Seven Sacraments of the New Law and divided into Three Main Groups:

a.     Sacraments of Christian Initiation (Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist)

b.     Sacraments of Healing (Penance, Anointing of the Sick)

c.      Sacraments at the Service of Communion (Holy Orders, Matrimony)

3.      For valid administration of each Sacrament there are four required elements: Form, Matter, Subject and Minister. The Form refers to the words spoken (formula). The Matter refers to the materials used along with the accompanying gestures (water, oil). The Subject refers to the person receiving the Sacrament (child or adult) and the Minister refers to the person administering the Sacrament (priest, bishop. Lay)

C. The Sacraments in Particular

1.      Baptism – Foundation of Christian existence, incorporates us into Christ’s Body, the Church, deputizes us to worship and service and calls us to mission and communion.

2.      Confirmation – Sacrament of “fullness,” of growth and maturity in Christ, reinforces our call to mission and communion, to be witnesses to our faith.

3.      Eucharist – the central Sacrament of the Church, the heart and summit of Church’s life, the highest form of worship that can be rendered to God. The Eucharist is Mystery, real Presence, Communion, Sacrifice, Thanksgiving, Worship and Meal. The Eucharist is a continuation of the Incarnation. (Note: a more detailed explanation of the Eucharist is given below).

4.      Penance – Sacrament of conversion, of forgiveness, of reconciliation

5.      Anointing of the Sick – Sacrament for those in danger of death, from sickness or old age.

6.      Holy Orders – Sacrament of Ordination (bishop, priest, deacon), Sacrament of the ministerial priesthood.

7.      Matrimony – Sacrament of Marriage, Sacrament of Communion of life and love.

D. Purpose of the Sacraments

 

The Constitution on Sacred Liturgy states that the purpose of the Sacraments is to sanctify people, to build up the Body of Christ and finally, to give worship to God; but being signs they also have a teaching function.

In other words, Sacraments sanctify; they build the ecclesial community; they are acts of worship; and they teach the faithful. To fully obtain their effects, the faithful should receive the Sacraments with faith and understanding. With faith, because as Sacraments of faith they presuppose and at the same time nourish the faith of those who receive them with understanding because they consist of signs by which their future and purpose are manifested.

E.    Practical Applications (taken from the DPA-I of the Diocese of Marbel)

 

 

BAPTISM:

1.      PARENTS

  • To have their child baptized within the first few weeks (c. 867)
  • To register child for Baptism one month before
  • To be married in the Church. If they cannot be validly married, parish priest decides
  • To attend pre-baptismal seminar
  • To be present during baptism
  • To choose names not foreign to Christian sentiment (c. 855).

2.      GODPARENTS

  • Catholics at least be 18 years of age
  • Only names of godparents to appear in baptismal registry. But obliged to pay required pays. Be properly instructed.
  • 1 godparent, male or female, is sufficient; but there maybe two, one for each sex (c. 873)
  • The rest are witnesses. Names may appear in baptismal certificate but should pay the required fees. Not obliged to attend pre-baptismal instruction.

3.      PLACE OF BAPTISM

  • Proper place is parish of the parents. For adult, his own parish.
  • Solemn baptism in private homes or private chapels not allowed
  • If child is to be baptized in another parish, parents to ask permission from their parish priest.

4.      BAPTISM OUTSIDE THE REGULAR SCHEDULE

  • Considered only in emergency cases or valid reasons (late).
  • No fines or extra fees to be required in such cases.

5.      SPECIAL CASES

  • Child of non-Catholic parents may be baptized if somebody takes responsibility to bring up the child in the faith
  • Adult candidates or those who completed 14th year should undergo Catechumenate and be baptized using rites for adult baptism.

6.      REGISTRATION FOR BAPTISM

  • Parents fill in Information Sheet provided by parish free of charge. Cope of child’s live birth certificate and parents’ marriage contract to be attached to I.S.
  • Format of I.S. is the same for all parishes
  • After filling in, data to be certified by proper authorities.
  • Those authorized to certify are GKK officials and others as determined by the parish.
  • One signature is needed only to certify that information given in I.S. is correct.

7.      PRE-BAPTISMAL INSTRUCTION

  • Basic course of instruction the same for all parishes. But to be evaluated every two years.
  • Attendance card to be issued free of charge and valid for three years.

8.      STOLE FEES

  • Fees for baptism to follow strictly the approved Diocesan List of Stole Fees
  • Additional fees are strictly prohibited.

CONFIRMATION:

1.      Proper age is 12 years old and above

2.      Candidates should register 1 month before confirmation, attend pre-Confirmation instructions, must be encouraged to go to confession before confirmation

3.      Sponsors should be at least 18 years old and Catholics.

4.      Registration:

a.       Information Sheet must be filled in by candidate

b.      Same format for all parishes

c.       To be certified by proper authorities

d.      Those authorized are the GKK officials

e.       One signature may suffice

f.       Such signature is needed to certify the information is correct.

g.      Confirmation Certificate maybe given with no extra charge

h.      Stole fees to follow Diocesan List

i.        No additional fees allowed.

ORDINATION:

1.      To be kept simple and within means of host parish

2.      Fundraising to be kept within the bounds of host parish

3.      Funds collected to be used strictly for ordination.

4.      Remaining balance to be forwarded to Chancery plus Financial report of Receipts and Disbursements

PENANCE:

1.      Priests to make themselves available for confession

2.      Each parish to have regular schedule for confession

3.      Communal celebration of Penance to be provided during Lent, Advent or fiesta preparation

4.      Confessional box maybe remodeled for face to face confession

5.      Inviting other priests to help in confession must have permission of parish priest

MARRIAGE:

1.      COUPLE TO BE MARRIED

  • Proper age is twenty (20) for the groom and the bride
  • Under such ages, dispensation has to be obtained (CBCP).

2.      REQUIREMENTS FOR MARRIAGE

  • Registration with the parish one month before marriage
  • Attend pre-Cana instructions
  • Submit the necessary documents for marriage

3.      MARRIAGE BANNS

  • To be announced orally or in print to the faithful for three consecutive Sundays or Holy days of obligations
  • May also be announced on other days where there is a great convergence of the faithful

4.      WITNESSES

  • Should be at least twenty one (21) years old
  • At least two witnesses are required during the ceremony.

5.      PLACE OF MARRIAGE

  • Proper place is either the parish of the bride or the parish of the groom
  • If marriage is celebrated in another parish, permission of the parish priests of both bride and groom are needed
  • No solemn marriage is allowed in private homes, private oratories or semi-private chapels

6.      REGISTRATION PROCEDURES

  • Couple fills in the “Information Sheet” provided by the parish free of charge
  • Date are to be certified by proper authorities
  • Such proper authorities are any of the following GKK Officers: GKK President, GKK Vice President, GKK Secretary, GKK Treasurer and GKK Auditor (or any other as determined by the parish).
  • One (1) signature may suffice for certification
  • Purpose of signature is only to certify that the information given in the I.S. is correct.

7.      MARRIAGE INVESTIGATION

  • Initial interview maybe done by the parish secretary
  • Final investigation should be done by the priest.

8.      MARRIAGE VALIDATIONS

  • Should be kept simple
  • It may be celebrated within the Mass

9.      WEDDING OUTSIDE THE REGULAR SCHEDULE

  • Acceptance of such weddings is left to the discretion of the parish priests
  • If allowed, rites and songs to be used are to be approved by the officiating priest

ANOINTING OF THE SICK:

1.      Priests should always make themselves available for sick calls

2.      A communal celebration of the Anointing of the Sick is to be encouraged in every parish

HOLY EUCHARIST:

First Communion:

1.      Proper age is ten (10) years old

2.      First Communicants: be given proper instructions and be encouraged to go to first confession

3.      Parents: should be properly instructed, and should be present during the ceremonies

Mass:

Mass Stipends:

1.      Only one stipend can be accepted by a priest daily. The parish priest, however, is obliged to offer a Mass “Pro populo” once a week.

2.      Stipends for binations and trinations are to be submitted or remitted to the Chancery “pro seminario.

3.      Pooling of several stipends is strictly prohibited

4.      Mass stipends for fiestas, weddings and funerals should follow the approved “Diocesan List.”

Priest Visitor (Priest not working in the Parish):

1.      Priest-visitor maybe allowed to say Mass with permission of the Parish Priest.

2.      If invited to say Mass and preach to a group, he should have permission of the Bishop

Ecumenical Celebration:

1.      Priests are not allowed to attend or preside at ecumenical celebration of the Eucharist or of other sacraments without explicit permission of the Bishop

2.      For other forms of ecumenical celebrations, a priest may attend but with caution.

 

II. NATURE AND KINDS OF SACRAMENTALS:

 

A. What are Sacramentals?

1.      According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church (nos. 1667-1668) Sacramentals are sacred signs. Instituted by the Church, bearing a kind of resemblance to the Sacraments; they signify effects, particularly of a spiritual kind that are obtained through the Church’s intercession. They dispose people to receive the chief effects of the Sacraments and to make holy various occasions in life. The Sacramentals resemble the sacraments, lead them and dispose the faithful to receive them fruitfully.

2.      From the above definition we can learn that sacraments and sacramentals are similar but that they also are different from one another.

3.      Sacraments and Sacramentals are similar because they are similar in name, in the use of signs, in requirements for efficacy and in purpose.

a.       Name. Sacraments and Sacramentals both came from the same Latin word, “sacrare” which means, “to make holy or sacred,” “to consecrate or to dedicate.”

b.      Signs. Both Sacraments and Sacramentals use signs, external and visible signs which signify internal and invisible reality.

c.       Efficacy. Both Sacraments and Sacramentals have the same requirements for validity and efficacy: correct matter and form, proper intention of the person concerned, and proper authority of the minister who administers them according to the intention of the Church.

d.      Purpose. Both Sacraments and Sacramentals have the same purpose: to glorify God, to sanctify people and to build up the Church.

4.      The difference between Sacraments and Sacramentals are in the institution, they effects they produce and in number.

a.       Institution. The Sacraments were instituted by Christ (or could be traced back to Christ), while the Sacramentals are instituted by the Church (or accepted by the Church).

b.      Effects. The effects the Sacraments are immediate (“ex opera operato” meaning, automatic from the direct power of Christ); while the effects of the Sacramentals are not immediate but through the prayers of the Church and the proper disposition of the person using the sacramentals (“ex opera operantis”).

c.       Number. Another difference is in number. While the sacraments are fixed to just seven sacraments, the number of sacramentals is unlimited. The Church may institute more as she sees it.

 

B. Kinds of Sacramentals:

The Sacramentals can be classified according to their purpose or use as “Ceremonial Sacramentals” and “Devotional Sacramentals.”

1.      Ceremonial Sacramentals are sacramentals that are incorporated into the rites and celebration of the sacraments such as, lighted candles, white cloth, holy oil, etc. used in Baptism.

2.      Devotional Sacramentals are sacramentals used in private devotions such as, rosaries, novenas, religious images and pictures, etc.

 

C. Types of Sacramentals:

Sacramentals can also be divided into Prayers, Actions and Things.

1.      Sacramentals that are Prayers: liturgical year, liturgical hours, novenas, angelus, station of the cross, dedication of churches and altars, consecration of virgins, religious profession, funeral of adults and infants, institution of lectors and acolytes, blessing of oils, crowning of the images of Blessed Virgin Mary and other Blessings in the Book of Blessings, etc.

2.      Sacramentals that are Actions:  sign of the cross, genuflection, kneeling, bowing of the head, folding hands, blessing of people, washing of the feet, etc.

3.      Sacramentals that are Things: water, oil, ashes, palm, fire, candles, rosaries, relics, scapulars, medals, crucifixes, statues, altars, church buildings, vestments, wedding rings, religious habits, liturgical vessels, bells, incense and pictures of Jesus, Mary and the saints.

Some sacramentals are a combination – they fall into two or more categories. The rosary, for example, is a pious object and a prayer. The sign of the cross is a prayer and a sign. The crucifix, pictures and statues are pious objects. The actions performed in the various sacraments are also sacramentals like extending the hands, blessing of the people, etc.

D. Power of the Sacramentals:

The power of the sacramentals is not the same as that of the Sacraments. Sacraments are very powerful, nevertheless, sacramentals are still powerful as action of Christ through the prayers of the Church.

The Sacramentals can do the following:

1.      They can consecrate or dedicate persons to the service of God such as the consecration of virgins, blessings of abbots and abbesses, religious profession of nuns, sisters and brothers, commissioning of ministry leaders, etc.

2.      They can make things holy or reserve objects and places for use in the liturgy such as, holy water, holy oils, blessed palms, ashes, dedication of churches and altars, blessing of vestments, chalices, bells, etc.

3.      They can protect persons or objects from demonic possessions and drive away evil spirits. This sacramental is called exorcism such as being done during Baptism, blessing of holy water, blessing of altar which are simple exorcism to differentiate it from the solemn exorcism which requires permission of the bishop.

4.      They can sanctify or render holy various occasions in life such as, family life, personal life, animals, tools and other items useful to man.

5.      They can prepare us to receive grace and dispose us to cooperate with it. They are means for securing heavenly help. They excite good thoughts and pious dispositions. They increase devotion, love of God, prayer and sorrow for sin. They take away venial sins or the temporal r the temporal punishment due to sin.

 

 

III. BLESSINGS

 

A. History and Development of Blessings:

Blessings have a very long history starting from Old Testament times up to the present.

In the Old Testament we find some instances of blessings. In Genesis God blessed the work of His creation and find them good. He blessed Adam and Eve to be faithful and multiply and subdue the earth. He blessed Abraham and told him his descendants would be many as the stars in heaven and the sands in the shore. He blessed His people Israel through Moses and Aaron. We are also familiar with the story of Isaac blessing his son Jacob and Esau. We find also many blessings in  the Psalms the Psalms like, “All you creatures bless the Lord.”

In the New Testament we find instances where Jesus blessed little children by touching their heads (Mk 10:16). We heard Jesus telling His disciples to bless the house of those who welcome them and to bless even those who cursed them (Lk 6:28). Before departing, Jesus blessed His apostles (Lk 24:50).

In the early Church many Jewish customs of praying at set times of the day were also adopted by the Christian community. In the 4th century we find various blessings such as, blessing for the light, blessing of first fruits, milk and honey, water for baptism. There were also blessings for catechumens, for lay persons and for the sick, blessing for the ordination of bishops, priests and deacons, blessing of giving the veil to a virgin or wife, blessing for minor orders of porters, lectors, exorcists, acolytes, and subdeacons, blessings for betrothals, pregnant women, women who have just give birth, blessing for a newly adopted child, blessing for the crowning of a king, queen or emperor, blessing of knights and pilgrims going to the crusade. It was also during this time that many rituals of thanksgiving blessings were added into the celebration of the Eucharist.

During the Middle Ages, many other kinds of blessing arose. But many of these blessings were petitionary in nature and the stress was on consecration. Prayers of petitions and consecration were added to the celebration of the Eucharist with the belief that the power of the consecrated bread and wine at Mass would somehow be transmitted to persons and earthly things. It was also this time that many Eucharistic devotions outside Mass proliferated.

Another feature of these times was the negative view of the world as inhabited by evil spirits and demons. Many rites of exorcism arose during this time which found their way into the liturgy.

With so many rites and devotions going around the Council of Trent attempted to put order and reforms. Its effect, however, was only minimal. It only reduced some practices but it was not able to correct the too much emphasis on the priests’ power to bless and the object to be blessed.

Further attempts for reform were made in 1956 and 1962 but only for the celebration of Holy Week.

The major reform came with Vatican II (1965). Many old blessings of previous centuries were rejected and heavily reduced. The complicated rite of the Tredentine Mass which accumulated so many sacramentals and blessings was simplified. The vernacular was allowed in the liturgy. Qualified lay persons were admitted as lay ministers for some blessings. Revised formularies for blessings were drafted which emphasized the participation of the community and the sanctification of persons rather than things. One of the results of Vatican II reform is the publication of Revised Book of Blessings in 1984. The blessings are divided into five groups: blessings directly pertaining to persons,  blessings for buildings and various activities, blessings of objects for liturgical use or for public veneration by the faithful, blessings of objects serving private devotions and blessings for various needs and occasions.

 

B. What is a Blessing?

Name. Blessing is a translation of the Latin word, “benedictio” from “benedicere” which means “to say something good” or“to speak well of.” To bless, therefore, is to say something good about a person or a thing. A blessing is a liturgical action which has two components: praise of God (Upward movement) and God’s blessing to man (downward movement).

An upward movement is word or action directed to God who is the source of power and goodness, giver of all grace. This blessing is called praise and thanksgiving. Example of this blessing is the Benedictus of Zechariah: “Blessed is the Lord, the God of Israel for he has come to His people and set them free.” Or Mary’s Magnificat: “My soul magnifies the greatness of the Lord for He has looked upon His servant in her lowliness.”

A downward movement is word or action asking God for grace or favor. The blessing is called petition. Many of our prayers are of this kind: Pray before meals, Birthday prayer, etc.

C. Kinds of Blessings:

Blessings are of two kinds: constitutive (benedictio) and invocative (benedicere).

a.       Constitutive Blessings are blessings which continue to retain their sacramental character even when the blessing is over. They may be applied to persons or to things. This kind of blessing can be done only by a person who has received the power of ordination.

  • Constitutive Blessings of persons: consecration of virgins, blessing of an abbot or abbess, monastic and religious profession and similar forms of consecrated life. This kind of blessing consecrates or dedicates a person for a special service to God. In this sense the person is specially dedicated to God, set aside for service to God.
  • Constitutive Blessings of Things: blessing or dedication of a church/chapel, blessing of an altar, blessing of holy water, oils, palms, ashes, blessing of things used in the liturgy (vestments, chalice, patens), religious articles (rosaries, medals, crucifix, pictures, images, etc.). in this sense a thing that is blessed is especially dedicated for service to God, reserved for special use in the liturgy and is somehow made holy.

b.      Invocative Blessings are blessings which do not retain their sacramental character when the blessing is over. Invocative blessings can also be applied to persons, places or things.

  • Invocative blessings of Persons: Blessings of familiesin their own homes, blessing of married couple, blessing of engaged couple, blessing of children, blessing of sons and daughters, blessing of a mother before and after childbirth, blessing of the sick, blessing of elderly people confined to their home, blessing of people attending a prayer meeting, blessing of travelers, blessing of a birthday celebrant, etc.
  • Invocative blessings of places: blessing of a home or a new house, a seminary, a new religious house, a new school, a new library, a new hospital or home for the aged or senior citizens, a workplace, a gym or exercise center, a pace or office of media communications (printing office, cinema, radio and television studios, etc).
  • Invocative blessings of thing: blessing of a vehicle and various means of transportation, blessing of tools and other equipment of work, blessing of animals, blessing of fields and flocks, blessing of thanksgiving for any special occasion, blessing before and after meals, blessing of the dead, etc.

Effective blessings depend on four factors: the object or person to be blessed, the person doing the blessing, the prayers used, and the instrument employed.

o   The object or person to be blessed – Some object or person are reserved only to those who are authorized to do the blessing

o   The person who will do the blessing – Some blessings are reserved only to bishops, most blessings can be done by a priest

o   The prayers to be used – Usually prayers are prescribed by the Church or local authority to be used for the blessing

o   The instrument of blessing – It may be by laying on of hands, by stretching of hands, by hand sign of the cross, by making the sign of the cross, by using holy water, etc.

o   The gesture, “Mano po” or ‘Amen” – is not properly a blessing but a sign of respect. To make it a blessing the words, “May God bless you” should be said.

o   The use of Holy water by an authorized person and without the prescribed prayer has doubtful effect.

In the Diocese of Marbel the things allowed to Laycos to bless are the following: funeral blessing, blessing of the tombs, house blessing, blessing of vehicles, and seed for planting.

Other kinds of blessings can be done by anybody: blessing of food, blessing for occasions (birthday, anniversary, graduation), invocations including wake service.

D. The Ministers of Sacramentals and Blessings:

Principle: The more a sacramental or blessing concerns ecclesial and sacramental life, the more is its administration reserved to the ordained ministry (CCC, 173).

The ministers of sacramentals and blessings can be divided into ordinary ministers and extraordinary ministers.

1.      Ordinary ministers are the ordained ministers, namely, bishops, priests and deacons

2.      Extraordinary ministers are the lay or non-ordained namely, religious brothers and sisters, instituted lectors and acolytes, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion (Laycos and lay Eucharistic ministers) and others who may also preside at blessings like catechists, family and life workers, KRISKA Alagads, lay liturgists and youth leaders.

 

The CCC prescribes that certain blessings pertaining to ecclesial and liturgical life are reserved to the clergy. Some ecclesial and liturgical blessings, however, are specified to bishops, many to priests and a few to deacons.

1.      Blessings reserved to a bishop are the consecration of a virgin, religious profession, dedication of a church, dedication of an altar and blessing of church bells. It is the bishop also who can grant permission to a priest to perform a solemn exorcism.

2.      It belongs to the prerogative of the bishop to install a parish priest, to preside at the institution of a lector and acolyte and to commission Laycos and Eucharistic ministers. He may also wish to preside at the commissioning of other diocesan ministry leaders such as, catechists, family and life workers, KRISKA Alagads, lay liturgists, youth leaders and social action workers, (Note: But the bishop may delegate some priests to do this).

3.      Blessings which can be done by Priests. Most blessings not reserved to bishops can be done by a priest. Many of these blessings concern persons, places and things. But it is to be noted that for blessings which are constitutive in nature, like blessings of religious articles and blessings of things for use in the liturgy, are reserved to the priests.

4.      Blessings which can be done by a deacon. These blessings are not as many as priests as for priests. These blessings are few in number and are indicated in the Book of Blessings.

5.      Blessings which can be done by lay persons. According to CCC, the basis of blessings is our own baptism by which we receive the baptismal priesthood. God has called us to be a blessing and to bless (CCC, 1669). From this it is clear that lay persons can also bless.

The blessings of lay persons, however, are not the same as those performed by priests. The blessings of lay persons are invocative blessings, that is, they are blessings whose sacramental character do not remain after the act of blessing is done.

  • The Book of Blessings lists down blessings which can be done by the Lay:

o   Blessing of homes and other buildings

o   Blessing of vehicles and other means of transportation

o   Blessing of animals, tools and farm equipments

o   Blessing of persons like members of the family, married couples, children, the sick and the elderly

o   Blessings for various occasions like birthday, anniversary and funeral and wake service for the dead

  • It should be noted that for most of these blessings, the prescribed prayers of the Church should be followed. The format of the blessings is also different from those of the priest. For example, there is no greeting like “The Lord be with you.” The lay preside does not raise his hands for the prayer, and he does not bless the people as the priest does. This is because the lay preside must maintain his role as lay and must not imitate the priest.
  • The usually instrument for liturgical blessings allowed for lay persons are the sign of the cross (before and after the blessing) and holy water which may be sprinkled.

E. Structure of Blessings:

Blessing may be solemn or simple. The rite of a solemn blessing is more formal and long. A simple blessing is a much shorter version.

The Structure of a Solemn Blessing follows this format:

1.      Introductory Rite

2.      Reading of the Word of God

3.      General Intercessions

4.      Prayer of Blessing

5.      Concluding Rite

F. The Sacramentals and Blessings in our Life:

Among Sacramentals, blessings come first. What can be said of blessings can also be said about sacramental:

1.      Blessings glorify God. Through them we give thankful praise to God, the origin and giver of every blessing. Through them we ultimately give worship to God.

2.      Blessings are anamnesis or remembrances. When we bless we gratefully remember that we and the things around us are already blessed by creation and redemption.

3.      Through blessings we experience God’s blessing continuously by conserving us in existence. His blessings consistin His being with us, in remaining with us and in continuing His care of us.

4.      We obtain the fullness of this blessing through the paschal mystery of Christ, through the continuous application of the salvation by Jesus through His death and resurrection.

5.      When we bless we praise God and we petition for His salvation. When we bless we communicate the love of God that we have received and share it with others.

6.      When we bless we receive grace to worship God duly and to practice charity.

 

G. Practical Suggestions:

1.      Prayer of praise and petition. How do you pray? Always petition?

2.      Every person can be a blessing. How can you be a blessing?

3.      Each person is called to bless. Hoe can you do this?

4.      How can you sanctify your daily life?

5.      How do you plan a simple rite of blessing for a recollection?

6.      What is more important the blessing of a house or the blessing of those who live in it?

7.      What is more important the blessing of a car or the blessing of the passengers who ride in it?

H. Some points to be Explained:

1.      The intention of the person receiving the blessing

2.      The intention of the Church in the blessing

3.      The prayers of the church in the blessing

4.      The authority of the bishop over blessings and devotions

5.      Proper Disposal of Unused Sacramentals

6.      Sacramentals in the sacraments

7.      Sacramentals in the Mass

8.      Spontaneous Prayer

 

IV. Wake Service

 

A. What is Wake Service?

1.      Wake Service is a prayer for the dead which is held in the home, funeral parlor or church. It is also called Vigil Service or Watch Service because it is usually done a day or so before the burial or before the deceased is brought to the church for funeral rites.

2.      Since it is a prayer service 9not a funeral service), the wake service can be led by a lay minister or by any lay person. Thus, it can be led by a catechist, a KRISKA Alagad, a family and life worker, a lay liturgist or a youth leader.

3.      A wake service is optional and not obligatory. The purpose is to visit the body and offer condolences to the bereaved. If done, the wake service is held only once and not everyday. Neither does it substitute for the traditional prayers for the dead which should go on as usual

B. What are Devotions

1.      Devotions are prayers and practices that are private in nature. They are not official prayers of the Church, but some are authorized by the Church and others are recognized by the local Ordinary.

2.      Examples: Rosary, Station of the Cross, Novenas, First Friday Devotions, May Devotions, 3 O’clock Prayer, etc.

C. Application:

 

Part V: LITURGICAL TIME AND SPACE

Ang mga kabahin sa liturhiya dili lamang arts, rites ug music kondili apil usab ang panahon (time) ug lugar (space). Kini mga components pod sa liturhiya tungod kay ang kasaulogan ginabuhat man sulod sa panahon ug lugar.

A. LITURGICAL TIME

1.      Ang liturhiya kasaulogan sa panahon sulod sa panahon. Ang panahon ginasukod sa tinuig, binulan, senimana, inadlaw, inoras, minute, Segundo, etc.

2.       Ang mga liturhiya nga may kalabtanan sa lakaw sa panahon mao ang Liturgy of the Hours, Sundays, liturgical seasons, liturgical feasts and anniversaries, sulod sa liturgical year.

3.      Ang Liturgy of the Hours, kasaulogan sa pagsantos sa pagpuli-puli sa panahon u gang liturgical feasts and anniversaries maoy alang sa fiesta ug anibersaryo sa Ginoo, sa Birhen Maria, mga santos ug sa mga simbahan (basilicas).

B. LITURGY OF THE HOURS

 

 

1. Unsa ang Liturgy of the Hours?

 

Ang Liturgy of the Hours o Divine Office mao ang opisyal nga pag-ampo sa Simbahan nga gibuhat sa gilatid nga takna (canonical hours) alang sa mga pari ug diakono, mga religious orders and communities ug sa mga laity. Kini nga pag-ampo naggamit sa mga salmo, inubanan sa mga himno ug mga balasahon. Ang Liturgy of the Hours ginaampo adlaw-adlaw sa iyang gilatid nga takna ug usa ka obligasyon sa mga natungdan.

2. Origin and Development of the Liturgy of the Hours

Ang pag-ampo sa tukmang oras sa adlaw ug gabii usa ka kinabatasan sa mga Judio kaniadtong panahon. Kini nga mga buluhaton gipadayon sa unang mga Kristyano. Kini nga pag-ampo, sama sa mga Judio, naggamit sa mga salmo, mga himno ug mga balasahon.

Sa mga ikalima nga siglo (5th century) namugna ang gitawag nga “Canonical Hours” o mga oras sa pag-ampo. Ang mga pangalan niini mao ang mosunod:

  • Matins (during the night), sometimes referred to as Vigils or Nocturns; it is now called the Office of Readings
  • Lauds or Dawn Prayer(at Dawn).
  • Prime or Early Morning Prayer (First Hour – 6AM)
  • Terce or Mid-Morning Prayer (Third Hour – 9AM)
  • Sext or Midday Prayer (Sixth Hour – 12 noon)
  • None or Mid-Afternoon Prayer (Ninth Hour – 3PM)
  • Vespers or Evening Prayer (“at the lighting of the lamps”)
  • Compline or Night Prayer (before retiring)

 

Note:

  • In the Roman Catholic Church, Prime was suppressed by the Second Vatican Council, reducing the number of canonical hours to the Biblical seven.
  • The Second Vatican Council also exhorted the Christian laity to take up the practice, and as a result, many lay people have begun reciting portions of the Liturgy of the Hours.
  • Current Roman Catholic usage focuses on three major hours and from two to four minor hours:

o   Invitatory (Introduction to the first hour said on the current day, whatever it be the Office of Readings or Morning Prayer

o   The Office of Readings (formerly Matins), major hour

o   Morning Prayer (Lauds), major hour

o   Daytime Prayer, which can be one or all of

§  Mid-Morning Prayer (Terce)

§  Midday Prayer (Sext)

§  Mid-Afternoon Prayer (None)

o   Evening Prayer (Vespers), major hour

 

 

C. THE LITURGICAL YEAR (Mga gamiton: Ordo, Sakramentaryo)

Ginaingon nga kitang tawo nalimitahan sa panahon. Ang tanan natong buluhaton nahasulod gayud sa usa ka panahon. Sugdan ug tapuson nato ang atong kinabuhi u gang atong mga buhat diha sa panahon. Nan, dili gayud kita makalikay sa panahon. Kanunay kini nga ania kanato. (Mangutana sa mga partisipante):

Kinsa man dinhi kaninyo ang makasulti kun unsang liyok (cycle) sa tuig ang inyong nahibaloan ug nasinati?

OR

Unsa mang panahon o okasyon ang imong ginasaulog sa usa ka tuig? Ngano nga ginasaulog man nimo kini? Giunsa man nimo kini pagsaulog?

Ang inyong tubag nagmatuod nga kitang mga tawo nalimitahan gayud sa panahon. Adunay nagkalainlaing liyok (Cycle) sa panahon. Adunay gitawag nga panahon subay sa kalendaryo (Calendar or civil year) nga magsukad sa Enero ngadto sa Disyembre. Anaa usab ang tuig tingtungha (School or Academic year) nga magsugod sa Junio hangtud sa Abril. Ug alang usab sa pamuhis (revenue purposes), anaa kining ginatawag nga “fiscal year.”

Sulod usab sa usa ka liyok sa panahon (year cycle) nagasaulog kita og mga bililhong hitabo sa atong kinabuhi ingon nga individual o ingon nga katilingban. Anaa kining mga anibersaryo sa pagkatawo, sa kaminyoon ug bisan gani ang kamatayon. Anaa usab kining mga kasaulogan sa kadaugan ug kagawasan, g kagawasan, ug uban pa. kining tanan nahilambigit sa panahon.

Ang sunod-sunod nga panghitabo sa adlaw ngadto sa gabii, sa mga semana ug bulan ug ang nagkadaiyang kapanahunan nga gitawag og kronos sa mga Griyego, nahimong panahon diin ang Dios naghimo sa iyang makaluwasnong buhat sa atong taliwala ug panahon nga gitawag og kairos.

Sa samang pagkaagi, kitang mga Katolikong Kristyano nagasaulog usab og mga bililhong hitabo sa atong kristohanong kinabuhi. Ug ang maong mga kasaulogan atong ginasaulog sa panahon. Hinungdan nga aduna kita’y ginatawag nga liturhikanhong tuig o tuig sa Simbahan.

Mao nga ang matag tuig gitawag nga Anno Domini (AD) o “Tuig sa Ginoo” tungod kay Siya misulod ug nahimong kabahin sa atong panahon, sa atong kasaysayan. Ang Iyang makaluwasnong buhat diha, uban ug pinaagi ni Kristo Iyang gihimo sa maong panahon.

Kini nagpasabot nga ang pagsaulog sa liturhikanhong tuig wala giplanoo gihan-ay nang daan. Apan ang tinuod, sumala sa kasysayaan, ang mga unang Kristyano nagasaulog sa mga misteryo ni Kristo sa senemana lamang nga gitawag og Dominggo diin gisaulog nila ang iyang kasakit, kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw (Paaschal Mystery). Dayon gidugang nila ang tinuig nga pagsaulog sa maong misteryo nga nailhan karon nga Panahon sa Pagkabanhaw (Easter Triduum). Sa ngadto-ngadto ang iyang Pagpakatawo (Christmas) hangtud halos tanang misteryo ni Kristo: Pagbunyag, Epipanya, Sagrado Corazon, Lawas ug Dugo ni Kristo, Pagkahari ug dinhi sa Pilipins, Santo Nino. Dugang pa, paggahin na og panahon sa pagsaulog sa mga tawo ngs dunay kalambigitan kang Jesus: si Maria isip Inahan; sa San Jose sa iyang pagkaamahan og mamumoo ug sa mga apostles, mga martir, mga birhen, etc. hangtud nalukop na ang tibuok tuig. Namugna kini tungod sa buhing pagtoo nga inubanan sa buhing buhat sa mga magtotoo. Usa ka buhing proseso sa paglambo.

 

 

D.    ANG INADLAW NGA LIYOK (The Day Cycle)

Ang matag adlaw gibalaan pinaagi sa atong pagsaulog, ilabi na sa Kasaulogan sa Misa ug sa Liturhiya sa mga Takna. Diha sa Misa, si Kristo mismo nagahalad sa iyang kaugalingon ngadto sa Amahan diha sa talad kan-anan diin gihatag Niya ang iyang kaugalingon nga kalan-on ug limnon ngadto sa iyang mga tinun-an alang sa kaluwasan sa tanang katawhan. Sa Liturhiya sa mga Takna, matinud-anon sa awhag sa mga tinun-an sa “pag-ampo nga makanunayon,” (1Tess Liturhiya sa mga Takna5:15), gigambalay aron gayud ang tibuok adlaw mabalaan diha sa pagdayeg sa Ginoo. Kining maong paagi sa pagsaulog giawhag nga Liturhiya sa mga Takna atong himoon diha sa atong mga panimalayo sa panahon nga kita managkatigum.

E. ANG SENEMANA NGA LIYOK (The Weekday Cycle)

 

1. Ang Adlaw’ng Dominggo

 

Kini maoy una nga pyesta nga gisugdan sa mga apostoles og gisaulog nila ang kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw ni Kristo. Mao nga gitawag og Adlaw sa Ginoo (Day of the Lord). Sa Latin, Dominica (Dominus – Lord/Ginoo), sa binisaya – ‘Dominggo.’

Tungod sa iyang kabililhon, ang Dominggo pulihan lamang sa mga Solemnidad (Solemnities) ug kapistahan sa atong Ginoo. Hinoon, ang mga Dominggo sa Adbyento, Kwaresma ug sa Panahon sa Pagkabanhaw mas hatagan og dignidad kay sa mga solemnidad uug kapistahan sa Ginoo. Kun dunay mga solemnidad nga maatol niining g kapistahan sa Ginoo. Kun dunay mga solemnidad nga maatol niining mga Dominggo, saulogon ang maong solmenidad sa Sabado.

2. Mga Adlaw sa Semana

Ang mga adlaw nga mosunod sa Dominggo ginatawag nga mga Adlaw sa Semana. Sila saulogon sumala sa ilang kabililhon.

F. ANG TINUIG NGA LIYOK (The Yearly Cycle)

Ang SC nag-ingon, “Sa tibuok tuig ang Simbahan nagapadayag sa misteryo ni Kristo, sa iyang pagpakatawo ug pagkatawo ngadto sa iyang kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw ngadto sa iyang pagsaka sa langit, sa pagpadala sa Espiritu Santo sa Pentekostes ug sa malipayong pagpaabot sa iayng pagbalik,” (SC 102).

1.      Liturgy is a celebration of time – a time of salvation brought about by Christ (kairos). By His incarnation, Christ entered time and human history.

2.      The liturgy is centered around the life and teaching of Christ which the Church celebrates in the liturgical year and the liturgical calendar.

Note: The Church uses two calendars: the liturgical calendar which is lunar (based on the moon) and civil calendar which is solar (based on the sun). The lunar calendar is used to determine movable feasts in the Church such as Easter, Holy Week, Lent, etc., while the solar calendar is used to determine fixed feasts such as Christmas 9dec. 25), Mary Mother of God (Jan. 1), Epiphany (Jan. 6), Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8), etc.

3.      All throughout the year, we celebrate the various times in the life of Christ: His incarnation-birth, ministry, passion-death-resurrection, ascension and sending of the Holy Spirit to the Church.

4.      The various times that we celebrate in the liturgy are grouped into five seasons: Advent, Christmas, Lent, Easter and Ordinary Time. Each of these seasons has its own particular color, mood, décor and music.

5.      Advent is a time of preparation for Christmas. Its liturgical color is light violet; its mood, décor and music are penitential and marked by moderation. Advent begins on the First Sunday of Advent and ends on the late afternoon of December 24.

6.      Christmas is the feast of the birth of Christ. Christmas is the second important feast of the Church. Its liturgical color is white; its mood, décor and music are joyful. Christmas begins on the evening of December 24 and ends on the late afternoon of the feast of the Baptism of the Lord.

a.       Pasko sa Pagkatawo (Celebration). Kini ginasaulog matag December 25 diin gihandum nato ang pagsulod Niya sa kalibutan aron sugdan pagtuman ug paghingpit ang makaluwasnong buhat sa Dios.

b.      Panahon sa Pasko sa Pagkatawo (Prolongation). And Pasko sa Pagkatawo wala matapos sa Dec 25. Kini nagpadayon hangtud sa Pyesta sa Pagbunyag ni Jesus. ang Oktaba niini naglakip sa Pyesta sa Sagrada Pamilya  ug sa pagka-Inahan ni Santa Maria.

c.       Adbyento (Preparation). Aron maandam kita alang sa pagsaulog sa Pasko sa Pagkatawo, migahin kita og panahon alang niini. Kini panahon alang sa mabinantayon ug malipayong paghulat sa pag-anhi sa atong Ginoo sa umaabot ug mabungahong pagsaulog sa iyang unang pag-anhi dinhi kanato diha sa Iyang pagkatawo.

7.      Lent is a time of preparation for Easter. Its liturgical color is dark violet, its mood, décor and music are heavily penitential and marked by austerity and moderation. Lent begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on the late afternoon on Holy Thursday.

8.      Easter is the feast of resurrection of Christ. It is the first important feat of the Church. Kini mao ang kinadugayan ug pinakahalangdon nga ksaulogan. Kini giila nga sentro sa tibuok liturhikanhong tuig. Its liturgical color is white; its mood, décor and music are triumphant and joyful. The Easter season begins on the Easter Vigil and ends on Pentecost Sunday. Gilangkuban kini sa tulo ka Panahon:

a.       Easter Triduum (Celebration o Tulo ka Adlaw nga Pagsaulog). Kini pinakahamili, pinakasentro, pinakahalangdon tungod kay si Kristo nagluwas kanatong tana diha sa iyang pagpasakit, kamatayon ug pagkabanhaw. Ug pinaagi niini gihatag Niya ang hingpit nga pasalamat, himaya, ug pagdayeg ngadto sa Dios Amahan. Kini magsugod sa Huwebes Santo sa Katapusang Panihapon, magpadayon kini sa pagsaulog sa ksakit ug kamatayon ni Jesus sa Byernes Santo ug mahingpit diha sa Dominggo sa Pagkabanhaw nga gisugdan sa bihilya, ang gabii diin si Jesus nabanhaw gikan sa mga minatay nga ginasaulog sa Sabado sa Gabii.

b.      Panahon sa Pasko sa Pagkabanhaw (Prolongation or Easter Season). Kini gikan sa Dominggo sa Pagkabanhaw hangtud sa Dominggo sa Pentekostes ug kini gisaulog nga usa lamang ka Dominggo nga nailhan nga “Great Sunday” ug gigahin ingon nga mapadayonong panahon sa pagmaya tungod sa pagkabanhaw ni Jesus. Ang Unang Walo nga Adlaw gitawag nga Oktaba ug solemnidad kini.

c.       Kwaresma (Preparation).  Kini panahon sa pagpangandam alang sa pagsaulog sa pasko sa pagkabanhaw. Kini maoy panahon nga maandam ang mga kandidato sa Bunyag ug ang mga katawhan diha sa paghandum sa sa kaugalingong bunyag ug matinud-anong paghinulsol sa mga kasaypanan (SC 109). Kini magsugod sa Meyerkules sa Badlis hangtud sa Kasaulogan sa Katapusang Panihapon.

9.      At Ordinary Time we commemorate the ministry of Jesus and the time of the Church. Kini mao ang panahon diin walay pinili nga bahin sa misteryo ni Kristo ang gisaulog. At the end of year, we go back and repeat the cycle. The color of the Ordinary Time is green; its mood, décor and music are varied. Time is green; its mood, décor and music are varied. Ordinary Time begins after Epiphany and on the Feast of Christ the King (34th Sunday in Ordinary Time).

10.  Solemnidad sa atong Ginoo. Sulod sa tibuok tuig gisaulog sab nato ang ubang aspeto sa misteryo ni Kristo sama sa: Pangilin sa Santo Nino, lawas ug Dugo ni Kristo (Corpus Christi), Santisima Trinidad, Sagradong Kasingkasing ni Jesus, Kristo nga Hari, etc. namugna kini isip bunga pagpadayag sa pagtoong katoliko ug pag-ila sa atong dakong debosyon kang Jesus.

11.  Pangilin sa mga Santos

a.       Pangilin ni Mari. Siya Inahan sa Dios nga si Jesus ug atong espirituahong inahan usab ingon nga nga kristyano. Busa siya angay pasidunggan labaw sa atong pagpasidungog sa mga santos ug ubos sa atong pagsimba kang Jesus.

b.      Pangilin sa ubang mga Santos. Ginasaulog nato aron mahimong silang sumbanan sa kinabuhing Diosnon. Ato sab mahandum ug masunod ang mga buhat nga nakapabalaan nila. Kini ginasaulog kasagaran sa adlaw sa ilang pag-ambit sa kinabuhinhg Diosnon nga ilang naangkon, ang adlaw sa ilang pagkamatay. Ug pagsaulog sab sa ilang pyesta, atong gisaulog si Jesus, ang iyang kinabuhi ug buhat sa kaluwasan. Tungod ka yang pagkabalaan dili atong kaugalingong binuhatan kundili gumikan sa grasya ug buhat sa Dios pinaagi ni Kristo. Mao nga ang Vatican II nag-ingon: “Ang pangilin sa mga santos nagmantala sa makaluwasnong buhat ni Kristo diha sa katwahan ug pinaagi niini ang katwahan kahatagan og hustong sumbanan nga angayan nila sundon,” (SC 111).

Addendum:

The Concept of Day in the liturgy

1.      For Sundays – the day begins at sunset on Saturday (similar to the Jewish Sabbath) and ends at midnight of Sunday.

2.      For Solemnities and big Feasts – the day begins on the eve (biospheres) of the feastday (similar in concept to Sunday).

3.      For Weekdays and Ordinary days – the counting of day is as usual, from midnight to midnight.

4. Note: The use of the word, “Anticipated Mass” is not precise. Saturday Evening Mass is already Sunday Mass in its liturgical sense.

G. LITURGICAL SPACE

 

 

1.      Liturgical Space refers to place of worship or the place where the liturgical celebration is to be held. LiturgicalSpace can be a Church, chapel, oratory or sacred space in the sanctuary.

2.      We use the term, ‘Church’ to mean the assembly gathered in a building and the building itself. This means there is a relationship between the community and the place where it meets.

3.      Once this habitual place of meeting becomes a building of worship, the community feels the necessity of preserving it exclusively for the worship of God by means of an action that expresses this decision for the worship of God by means of an action that expresses this decision and more importantly, and more importantly, calls down God’s favor upon it. This liturgical action is the rite of dedication of a church.

4.      Liturgical space therefore means place and the arrangement of the place of worship, which mirrors and reflects the people of God which gathers there.

H. SACRED SPACE

 

 

Sacred Space refers to a special place in the Church where the celebration takes place. Another name for sacred space is sanctuary.

The following Section deals with the sacred space as found in the GIRM:

1.      Physical Arrangement of the Sanctuary. Within the sanctuary:

1.1     The sanctuary should be somewhat elevated. It should be large enough to accommodate all the rites.

1.2     The big cross at the sanctuary should have a “corpus” (crucified Christ). When there is already such cross, there is no need for a smaller cross at the altar. (Note: the cross with a resurrected Christ is unliturgical).

1.3     The priest-celebrant’s Chair should be placed at the back of the sanctuary and turned toward the congregation. Anything resembling a throne is to be avoided. The seats for the ministers should be so placed in the sanctuary that they can readily carry out their appointed functions

1.4     The Ambo is the proper place for the Readings, Responsorial Psalm, and the Gospel. It may also be used for the homily and the Prayer of the Faithful. However, the Introduction before the Mass and the Announcements after Communion may not be done in the Ambo. Another Reading stand maybe used for these purposes.

1.5     The Altar should always be covered with a white cloth (altar cloth). Candles and flowers may be placed near it. Use of Candles: for weekdays, 2 candles and for Sundays, 4 candles. For Easter, Christmas and special occasions, 6 candles. For Mass presided by the Bishop, 7 candles. The shape, size and decoration of the altar cloth should be in keeping with the design of the altar.

1.6     Altars maybe fixed or movable.  For big churches it is preferable to have a fixed altar, made of stone and other solid, becoming well-crafted materials. Main altars should be freestanding to allow the ministers to walk around it. The pedestal or base of the table maybe of any sort of material, as long as it is becoming and solid. (Note: do not cover the whole altar including the base so that it appears no longer as an altar but a catering table).

2. Other Liturgical Arramngements

2.1 The places for the faithful should be arranged so that the people are able to see the priest and the other ministers and also, with the aid of modern equipment, to hear them without difficulty.

2.2 The choir should be so placed that its character as a part of the assembly of the people that has a special function stands out clearly. The location should also passist the choir’s liturgical ministry and readily allow each member complete participation in the Mass.

2.3 The organ and other lawfully approved musical instruments are to be placed suitably in such a way that they can sustain the singing of the choir and congregation and be heard with ease when they are played alone.

2.4 The Eucharist is to be reserved in a single, solid, unbreakable tabernacle. Thus as a rule there should be only one tabernacle in each Church.

2.5 Images of Christ, Mary and the Saints must be limited in number and must be situated in such a way that they do not distract the people’s attention from the celebration. There is to be only one image of any one saint.

2.6 The Style in which a church is decorated should be a means to achieve noble simplicity, not ostentation. The choice of materials for church decorations must be marked by concern for genuineness and by the intent to foster instruction of the faithful and the dignity of the place of worship.

2.7 Proper planning of a church and its surroundings that meets contemporary needs requires attention not only to the elements belonging directly to liturgical services but also to those facilities for the comfort of the people that are usual in places of public gatherings.

I. LITURGICAL FEASTS

 

 

1.      Movable Feasts: Epiphany, Ash Wednesday, Easter Sunday, Ascension, Pentecost, Holy Trinity, Corpus Christi, Sacred Heart, Christ the King

2. Holy Days of Obligations: Mary Mother of God (Jan. 1), Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8), Christmas Day (Dec. 25)

 

3. Liturgical Days: Sundays, Solemnities, Feasts, Memorials, Ferial Days

Part VI: EUCHARIST

A. Introduction

Kasagaran kon moingon kita’g liturhiya ang una natong mahunahunaan mao ang ksaulogan sa Eukaristiya o Santos nga Misa. Kin itungod ka yang Liturhiya, Eukaristiya ug Santos nga Misa mao ra man gihapon nga kasaulogan.

I. THE MASS

1. Unsa ang Misa?

 

1.1.Ang Misa usa ka kasaulogan ni Kristo ug sa Simbahan. Ang Misa maoy pinakataas nga pagsimba nga atong mahimo ngadto sa Dios. Ang Misa maoy pinakaimportante nga liturhiya sa Simbahan ug kini atong ginabuhat labi na sa adlawng Domingo.

1.2.Ang Misa adunay Upat ka Elemento: Panagtigum (gathering), Pagpaminaw (listening), Pag-ambitanay (sharing) ug Pagpadala (commissioning). Ang Misa nagasugod sa pag-awit sa Awit sa Panagtigum (entrance Song). Sa panahon sa pagbasa sa mga balasahon naminaw kita ug nagdawat sa mensahe sa Dios. Ug sa katapusang bahin sa Misa gitahasan kita aron pagsangyaw sa Maayong Balita ngadto sa uban.

1.3.Ang Misa nga atong gigamit karon mao ang Misa nga gilagdaan ni Pope Paul VI kaniadtong 1970. Kini nga Misa maoy katumanan ds reporma sa liturhiya nga gimando sa Vatican II sa tuig 1963 ug gitawag kini karon nga Ordo Missae (han-ay sa Misa) ni Pope Paul VI.

1.4.Ang Ordo Missae ni Pope Paul VI may bahin nga karaan o tradisyonal ug may bahin man nga bag-o. ang bahin nga tradisyonal mao ang bahin sa Misa nga wala nagausab (sama sa konsagrasyon) ug an bahin nga bag-o mao ang bahin sa aktibo nga partisipasyon sa mga tawo.

1.5.Ang unang naggamit sa pulong “active participation” mao si Pope Pius X sa tuig 1911. Kini gisundan sa mga reporma nga gihimo sa sumusonod nga mga Santo Papa: Benedict XV sa 1920, Pius XII sa 1951 ug 1955, ug John XXIII sa 1962. Kining ginagmay ngaa mga tinguha sa mga Santo Papa, nagkab-ot og kumpletong katumanan pag-abot sa Vatican II Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy – “Sacrosanctum Concilium” sa tuig 1963.

2. Ang Reporma sa Liturhiya nga Gimando sa Vatican II

 

Ang labing importante nga tuyo sa reporma mao ang aktibo nga partisipasyon sa mga tumotoo sa liturhikanhong kasaulogan (SC 14). Ang Misa usa ka publiko nga kasaulogan (SC 26), ug mga nagkalainlaing mga ministro magbuhat lamang sa ilang kaugalingong buluhaton (SC 37-40). Ang General Intercession ibalik sa kasaulogan (SC 53), ang vernacular language mahimong gamiton (CS 54), u gang konselebrasyon sa pari mahimong itugot (SC 57-58).

3. Basic Structure of the Mass according to the Ordo Missae

In general, the Mass has Two Main Parts:

a.       The Liturgy of the Word: where readings from the Bible are read and explained

b.      The Liturgy of the Eucharist: where we give thanks to God for all He has done for us through Jesus by recalling His death and resurrection and sharing the bread and wine which have become the Body and Blood of Christ.

In particular, the Mass follows a prescribed sequence which is called the Order of the Mass.

4. Order of a Regular Sunday Mass

 

4.1. Introductory Rites

 

4.1.1. Entrance Song (We Gather to Praise and Worship God)

This part opens the celebration and accompanies the procession of priest and servers to the Altar. It should be sung to deepen our unity together and to introduce us to the Mystery of the Season or Feast.

4.1.2. Order of Simple Entrance Procession

Once the congregation has gathered, the priest and the ministers, clad in their vestments, go to the altar in this order:

Altar servers with Two Lighted Candles

Reader with the Book of the Gospels

Other ministers (other servers, lay ministers, deacon, concelebrants)

The Priest who is to celebrate the Mass

4.1.3. Reverence at the Altar

On reaching the altar the priest and ministers make the proper reverence, that is, a profound bow (from the waist).

4.2.Opening Rite

 

The priest then goes to the chair. After the entrance song and with all standing, the priest and the faithful make the Sign of the Cross. The priest says, “In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit;” and the people answer, “Amen.

Then, facing the people and with hands outstretched, the priest greets all present. He (or some other qualified minister) may give the faithful a very brief introduction to the Mass of the day (GIRM 86).

4.3.Penitential Rite

This Part invites us to be sorry for our sins. We come to God in a spirit of contrition, so that we may celebrate the Eucharist worthily and grow in grace. The rite includes, “I confess” and “Lord have mercy.

4.4.Lord Have Mercy and Gloria

After the Penitential Rite, Kyrie and Gloria (if prescribed) are said. The Gloria maybe intoned (started) either by the priest, the cantors or by everyone together (GIRM 87).

4.5.Opening Prayer or Collect

With his hands joined, the priest then ionvites the people to pray, saying: “Let us pray.” All pray silently with the priest for awhile. Then the priest with ahnds outstretched says the opening prayer in behalf of the people, at the end of which the people resond: “Amen,” (GIRM 88).

4.6.The Liturgy of the Word (We listen to God’s message for us)

4.6.1. First Reading

After the Opening Prayer, the Reader goes to gthe lectern (without bowing) for the First Reading. All sit and listen and make the acclamation at the end (GIRM 89). Note: On a Sunday or Solemnity the first freading is usually taken from the Old Testament.

4.6.2. Responsorial Psalm

After the Reading, the psalmist, or cantor of the Psalm or even the reader, sings or recites the Psalm and the congregation sings or recites the Response (GIRM 90).

4.6.3. Second Reading

Then, if there is a second reading before the gospel, the reader reads at the lectern as before (without bowing). All sit and listen and make the acclamation at the end (GIRM 91).

4.6.4. Alleluia or Gospel Acclamation

The Alleluia or other chant, according to the season, follows (GIRM 92).

4.6.5. Gospel Reading

The Priest or deacon takes the Book of the Gospels on the altar and takes it to the Ambo. At the Ambo the priest opens the Book and says, “The Lord be with You.” Then, he says, “A reading from….” making the sign of the cross with his thumb on the book and on his forehead, mouth and breast. (Note: if incense is used, the priest incenses the book at this time). After he proclaims the gospel the priest kisses the book and people make the customary acclamation (GIRM 95).

4.6.6. Homily

The Homily is an explanation and proclamation of the readings of the Liturgy. The homily is given at the chair or at the lectern (GIRM 97).

4.6.7. Creed or Profession of Faith

 

The Profession of Faith is said by the priest together with the people. (Note: At the words, “by the power of gthe Holy Spirit, etc.” all bow; on the solemnities of the Annunciation and Christmas, all kneel) – GIRM 98.

4.6.8. Prayer of the Faithful or General Intercession

Next, with the people atking their proper part, follow the general intercessions (prayer of the faithful), which the priest directs from his chair or at the lectern (GIRM 99).

4.7.The Liturgy of the Eucharist

4.7.1. Offertory or Presentation of the Gifts

After the General Intercessions, the presentation song begins. The servers place the corporal purificator, chalice and missal on the altar (GIRM 100).

During this time, the faithful express their participation by presenting both the bread and wine for the celebration of the Eucharist and other gifts to meet the needs of the church and of the poor.

The faithful’s offerings are received by the priest, assisted by the servers and put in a suitable place; the bfread and wine for the Eucharist are taken to the altar (GIRM 101).

4.7.2. Offering of Bread

At the altar the priest takes the paten with the bread. With both hands he holds it slightly raise above the altar and says the accompanying prayer. Then he places the paten with the bread on the corporal (GIRM 102).

4.7.3. Offering of Wine

Next, as the servers present the cruets, the priest stands at the side of the altar and pours wine and a little water into the chalice, saying the accompanying prayer softly. He returns to the middle of the altar, takes the chalice, raises it a little with both hands and saying the appointed prayer. Then he places the chalice on the corporal and may cover it with a pall (GIRM 105).

The priest bows and says softly the prayer, Lord God we ask you receive, (GIRM 104). (Note: if incense in used, the priest incenses the gifts and the altar. Then the server incenses the priest and congregation (GIRM 105).

4.7.4. Washing of Hands

After the prayer, Lord God we ask you to receive (or after gthe incensation), the priest washes his hands at the side of the altar and softly says the prescribed prayer as he dips his fingers into the bowl of water and dries his hands.

4.7.5. Invitation to Pray

The priest returns to the center and, facing the people and extending then joining his hands, pronounces the invitation: “Pray, brothers and sisters.” After the people’s response, he says the prayer over the gifts with hands outstretched. At the end the people make the acclamation: Amen (GIRM 107). Note: People should stand at this part).

 

4.7.6. Preface

The priest then begins the Eucharistic Prayer. With hands outstretched, he says: “The Lord be with you.” As he says, “Lift up your hands,” he raises his hands; with hands outstretched, he adds: “Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.” When the people have answered: “It is right ti give Him thanks and praise,” the priest continues the preface.

4.7.7. Holy, Holy, Holy

At the conclusion of the Preface, the priest joins his hands and sings or says aloud with the ministers and people the Sanctus – Benedictus (GIRM 108).

4.7.8. Canon or Eucharistic Prayer

The priest continues the Eucharistic Prayer according to the rubrics that have been chosen.

4.7.9. Consecration

A little before the consecration, the server may ring a bell as a signal to the faithful. He also rings the bell at the showing of both the host and the chalice (GIRM 109).

4.7.10. Our Father or Lord’s Prayer

 

After the doxology at the end of the Eucharistic Prayer, the priest, with hands joined, says the introduction to the Lord’s Prayer. With hands outstretched he then sings or says this prayer with the people. (Note: Only the priest should raise his hands during the Our Father (GIRM 110).

After the Lord’s Prayer, the priest alone, with hands outstretched, says the embolism, “Deliver us.” At the end the congregation makes the acclamation, “For the kingdom,” (GIRM 111).

4.8.Preparation for Communion

 

4.8.1. Sign of Peace

 

Then the priest says aloud the prayer, “Lord Jesus Christ…” After this prayer, extending then joining his hands, he gives the greeting of peace: “The peace of the Lord be with you always.” The people answer: “And also with you.” Then the priest may add: “Let us offer each other a sign of peace.” All exchange some sign of peace and love, according to local custom. The priest may give the sign of peace to the ministers (GIRM 112).

4.8.2. Lamb of God

The priest then takes the Eucharistic bread and breaks it over the paten. He places a small piece in the chalice, saying softly: “May this mingling.” Meanwhile the Agnus Dei is sung or recited by the choir and congregation (GIRM 113).

Then the priest says softly the prayer, “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of gthe living God” or “Lord Jesus Christ with faith in your love and mercy” (GIRM 114).

After the prayer the priest genuflects, takes the Eucharistic bread, and, holding it slightly above the paten while facing the people, says: “This is the Lamb of God.” With the people, he adds: “Lord, I am not worthy to receive you,” (GIRM 115).

4.8.3. Communion (Christ shares with us His Body and Blood)

Next, facing the altar, the priest says softly: “May the Body of Christ bring me to everlasting life” and reverently consumes the Body of Christ. Then he takes the chalice, saying: “May the Blood of Christ bring me to everlasting life,” and reverently drinks the Blood of Christ, (GIRM 117).

He then takes the paten or a ciborium and goes to the communicants. He raises the Eucharistic bread slightly and shows it to each one, saying: “The Body of Christ.” The communicants reply: “Amen.” (Note: The server holds the communion plate under the chin while the communicant receives the Sacrament (GIRM 117).

The Communion song is begun while the priest is receiving the Sacrament (GIRM 119).

4.8.4. Purification of the Chalice

After Communion the priest returns to the altar and collects any remaining particles. Then, standing at the side of the altar, he purifies the paten or ciborium over the chalice, then purifies the chalice, saying quietly: “Lord, may I receive these gifts, etc.” and dries it with purificator (GIRM 120).

Afterward the priest may return to the chair.  A period of silence may now be observed or a hymn of praise or a psalm maybe sung (GIRM 121).

4.8.5. Prayer after Communion

Then, standing at the altar or at the chair and facing the people, the priest says, with hands outstretched: “Let us pray.” He recites the prayer after communion, at the end of which the people make the response: “Amen” (GIRM 122).

4.9.The Concluding Rite

4.9.1. Announcements

If there are any brief announcements, they may be made at this time (GIRM 123).

4.9.2. Final Blessing

Then the priest, with hands outstretched, greets the people: “The Lord be eith you.” They answer: “And also with you.” The priest immediately adds: “May almighty God bless you,” and, as he blesses with the sign of cross, continues: “the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.” All answer: “Amen.” 9Note: On certain days and occasions another form of blessing or prayer over the people may be used).

4.9.3. Dismissal and Commissioning (We are sent forth to do our Mission)

Immediately after the Blessing, with hands joined, the priest adds: “Go in peace of Christ,” or “Go in peace to love and serve the Lord,” or “The Mass is ended, go in peace,” and the people answer; “Thanks be to God,” (GIRM 124).

4.9.4. Ending Procession

As a rule, then priest then kisses the altar, makes the proper reverence with the ministers and leaves (GIRM 125).

 

II. WORSHIP OF THE EUCHARIST OUTSIDE MASS

Some of the practices of worshipping the Eucharist Outside the Mass are as follows:

12. Prayer in the presence of the reserved Sacrament (visit to the Blessed Sacrament)

13. Processions (Corpus Christi prtocession)

14. Exposition

15. Benediction

These practices were originally related to the liturgy but gradually separated from it. Main causes were the evolution within liturgy itself, and rise in Eucharistic devotions outside the Mass.

Vatican II sought to place these devotions in their proper context. Such cult, SC suggests, must be seen within the larger context of the many presences of Christ: in the celebrating people, in the Word, in the liturgy, in the ministers, in the Eucharistic species.

Within this context, it makes sense to celebrate that presence of the Lord which begins sacramentally during Mass and remains in the reserved Eucharist, where Christ is, “in our midst day and night, full of grace and truth.”

Part VII: SUNDAY LITURGY WITHOUT A PRIEST

A. INTRODUCTION

 

 

Another liturgical practice which is becoming common today is the Sunday Celebration in the Absence of Priest (SCAP). This phenomenon is a product of the changing situation of our time, brought about by many factors: the fast growth of population, the lack of priests, the emergence of BECs and most of all, the desire of the people to celebrate the liturgy even if there is no Mass and the priest is not available.

B. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCAP

1.      The move to adopt the “Priestless Sunday Services” to difficult missionary situation started about 65 years before Vatican II.

2.      The Sunday liturgy presided by lay catechists was first introduced in Burundi, Africa in 1898 soon after its evangelization. The practice becomes obligatory by 1943 in places not frequented by missionaries. In 1946 the Propaganda Fide ggave its stamp of approval. Madagascar and Togo followed the example of Burundi in 1930, and the practice quickly spread to most of the African Churches.

3.      Churches in other third world countries have known the practice for several years. In Latin America one can name Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Panama. In Asia we have, among others, India, Indonesia and the Philippines.

4.      But the Sunday liturgy presided by a lay minister is not exclusively third world phenomenon. Churches in Europian countries like Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, Germary, Switzerland and England have also adopted the practice.

C. THE OFFICIAL RESPONSE OF THE CHURCH

1.      The practice received a favorable response from Vatican II’s Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, art. 35 no. 4: “Bible Service should be encouraged on Sundays and holidays, especially in places where no priest is available.” In 1963 the Instruction, “Inter Oecumenici,” no 37, changed the word, “Bible Service” to Liturgy of the Word, thus establishing the practice as a liturgical celebration.

2.      In 1973 the document, “Immensae Caritatis” allowed lay persons to give holy communion as extraordinary ministers within the Mass and even outside the Mass on Sundays. Thus the practice developed the Sunday Liturgy into a full celebration of the Word with Holyb Communion.

3.      In 1988 (June 2) the Congregation for the Divine Worship addressed and issued the Directory for Sunday Celebrations in the Absence of a Priest. This is the document that serves as guidelines for the current celebration of the SCAP.

4.      Added to this, in January 2001, the CBCP, in its Plenary Meeting, approved the revised and enriched version of the order of celebration of SCAP. This document was carefully prepared by Paul VI Institute of Liturgy headed by Fr. Anscar Chupungco, OSB. This is how the Directory that we are using in the Philippines.

D. LAY MINISTERS AS PRESIDERS OF THE SUNDAY LITURGY

1.      Who among the lay people can preside at Sunay Liturgy without a priest? The various answers are: Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion, Instituted Lectors and Acolytes, Religious Brothers and Sisters, Catechists who have special role in the formation of the community or any simply lay persons with good religious background and standing in the community.

2.      But what is important to consider is that lay ministers should appear to the eyes of the community as ministers of the church, acting in its name under the authorization of the bishop or the parish priest, and hence able to preside at the Sunday Liturgy of the community.

E. THE ELEMENTS OF SUNDAY LITURGY WITHOUT A PRIEST

1.      The elements which constitute Sunday Liturgy without a Priest take the following theological principles into account:

a.       The community gathers as assembly, not for a collective devotion, but for a liturgical action. Since the celebration takes place on Sunday, certain elements which are characteristic of the Lord’s Day should be present. These are the proclamation of the Word and Holy Communion, the two principal actions whereby the community encounters the risen Lord.

b.      The celebration of the Sunday Liturgy without a Priest should not resemble the Mass too closely. Elements which are proper to the Mass, such as Mass dialogue, Eucharistic Prayer (even without the narration of the Last Supper), the Sacramentary (altar book) and Mass vestments, are not in used.

c.       The structure and texts of the celebration allow for a reasonable amount of variation, in order to suit the need of the local community, without jeopardy, however, to active, intelligent and easy participation.

2.      On the basis on the foregoing principles the Sunday liturgy without a Priest could gave the following Elements:

a.       An Introductory rite that stresses the ecclesial dimension of the assembly or some characteristic traits of the Lord’s Day, i.e., Baptism, praises.

b.      Liturgy of the Word. This should follow the dialogical structure of the word: proclamation, sharing and general intercessions. Reading should normally follow the assigned readings in the Lectionary, in order to create closer unity with the rest of the Church.

c.       Rite of Holy Communion. This part of the celebration can have the following elements: a Prayer of Praise and Thanksgiving, the Lord’s Prayer and Distribution of Holy Communion. The Prayer of Praise and Thanksgiving should be related to the day of the Lord and to its themes: creation, paschal mystery, Eucharist, Church. Its construction should be different from that of the Eucharistic Prayer.

d.      A Rite of Dismissal to enjoin all to live according to the word and the sacrament.

Part VIII: DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR LAYCOS (separate Lecture)

H. Summary

I. Documentation

 

 

V. Challenge:

 

 

VI. Celebration:

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References:

 

1.      A Concise Dictionary of Theology by Gerard O’Collins, SJ and Edward G. Farrugia, SJ (copyrighted by Claritian Publications, Quezon City 2001)

2.      Acts and Decrees of the Second Plenary Council of the Philippines (copyrighted by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines and published and distributed by Paulines Publishing House, Pasay City 1992)

3.      Some Lecture Notes on Lay Spirituality (from Holy Cross Parish, Calumpang and Mine)

 

 

I. Pasiuna (PCP-II nos. 439-441):

Ang nagkalain-laing aspeto sa kinabuhi sa Simbahan ug sa katilingban nga sa diin ang mga yanong magtotoo gitawag aron sa pagtuman sa ilang tahas, namgninahanglan sa usa ka spiritwalidad.

Kaniadto, and espiritwalidad sa mga kaparian ug relihiyoso ug ang espiritwalidad sa mga yano walay klaro nga kalainan. Resulta: clericalization of the laity. Karon atong masabtan nga: ang Lay Spirituality masabtan diha sa kahimtang sa kinabuhi sa tawo, ang iyang panglawas, ang iyang propesyon u gang iyang kartilingbanong kalihukan. Bisan unsang kahimtang, ang matag usa nakadawat sa angay nga gasa o talent ug nga kini kinahanglan nga ugmaron, sama nga kini gasa gikan sa Espiritu Santo (Christifideles Laici 56, Apostolicam Actuositatem 4).

Diha sa atong kahimtang sa kinabuhi atong matisok ang liso sa pagkabalaan ug kini motubo ug mamunga. Kung maghisgot kita og Lay Spirituality, atong masabtan nga ang matag udsa makakita nga ang kabubot-on sa Dios nagalihok nganhi kanato, diha sa atong buluhaton, sa mga ordinaryong mga butang sa atong ginahimo ug ang pagtuman niining maong mga buluhaton sa pamilya ug sa katilingban.

Lay spirituality consists in being able to see the will of God operating, precisely in one’s secular duties, in the ordinary things that one does, and infulfilling them with as much love as one can muster. It is not a devotional escape nor a pietistic flight from the problems in politics, business and family relationships.

Ang Lay Spirituality nakaugat sa atong kahimtang sa kabubut-on sa Amahan, sa mga kadalanan, sa mga trabahoan ug sa mga panimalay. Kini magdala kanato sa kinabuhi sa pagkamanggihatagon ug labaw sa tanan, si KRISTO ang sentro sa tanan diha diha sa katilingban ug sa Simbahan.

II. Unsa ang Lay Spirituality

 

A. Etymology and Definition:

 

i. Lay/Yano

1.      Ang pulong “Yano” nagakahulugan og ‘kasagaran’ o ‘ordinaryo,’ common o dili talagsaon.

2.      The term ‘lay’ (or Yano) comes from the Greek “laikos” which means “people.” The faithful who have been fully incorporated into the Church through baptism, Confirmation and Communion (1Pt 2:9-10) but who have not received Holy Orders and become priests. Kun sa ato pa kini siya dili ang Santo Papa, dili ang Obispo ug dili ang Madre. Apan ang usa ka Yanong Kristyano pwedeng ang doctor, engineer, teacher, nurse, office worker, tricycle driver, laborer, mag-uuma, mangingisda, police, military, piniriso, Kriska Alagad, LayCo, sacristan, Convent boys, houseboy, maid, balo, minyo, dili minyo, five major officers, Family and Life workers, youth, social action workers, catechists, etc.

3.      Ang pulong yano nagahulagway sa mga tawo nga nagababad diha sa nagkadaiyang trabaho sa kalibutan alang sa tawhanon nga panginabuhian. Kini sila direkta nga nag-apil sa ekonomikanhon, politikanhon, katilingbanon ug kulturanhon nga aspeto sa kinabuhi.

4.      Sa Simbahan, kining ordinary o yanong membro maoy nagadaghan.

ii. Spirituality/Espiritwalidad

1. Ang pulong, ‘spirituality’ nagahubit og usa ka kinabuhi nga gipuy-an sumala sa mga mithi o mga panig-ingnan ni Kristo.

2. Nagabatbat kini og mga prinsipyo, estilo sa pagpuyo, batasan og desisyon sa pagpuyo sa Diosnong kinabuhi nga nakaugat sa pagtoo ni Kristo.

3. Nagahubad usab kini sa pagpuyo ug pagsangyaw niining mga prinsipyoha/mithi alang sa pagbag-o o sa mga negatibo o ‘hiwi’ ning kalibutan ug sa paglabaw (transcend) niini.

4. Nagpangita usab kini sa matuod ug matarong nga relasyon sa tanang katawhan ug sa uban pang mga binuhat.

5. Nagapangita kini sa mga “Hiwi” o dili sulundon nga mga butang o mithi aron bag-ohon kini sumala sa mithi o “values” o pamatasan ni Kristo.

6. Nagapangita kini sa pagpalambo ug pagpalig-on sa mga matarong o mga maayong mga gawi.

7. Sa ato pa, ang pulong espiritwalidad nagakahulugan sa usa ka “Pagsunod” sa usa ka tawo nga mao si Kristo ug gihimo kini siya nga giya sa pagkab-ot sa kapuno sa plano sa GINOO.

8. Si Yves Congar (Lay People in the Church, Geoffrey Chapman, 1965, 400) nag-ingon nga adunay usa lang ka Spirituality, it is the Christian quest to seek union with God in Christ and so “to tend to holiness,” that lay people have to sanctify themselves too.

III. Spiritwalidad sa Yanong Kristyano:

Sa laktod nga pagkasulti, nagahulagway sa pagpanginabuhi sa mga ordinaryong myembro sa Simbahan sumala sa panig-ingnan o prinsipyo nga gitudlo o mithi ni Kristo diha sa ilang ordinary o adlaw-adlaw nga panginabuhi sa kalibutan.

A. May Upat (4) ka Tipik ang Espiritwalidad:

1.      Kinaugalingon (Personal): Ginapuy-an nako ang akong kinabuhi sumala sa gitudlo ni Jesus

2.      Katilingbanon (Communal): Pagsangyaw sa mga “mithi” (Values) ni Kristo ngadto sa ubang katawhan pinaagi sa Pulong ug Binuhatan.

3.      Makasaysayanon (Historical): Kini nga espiritwalidad nagatuklod sa tawo sa pagbag-o o pagbalhin sa kalibutan ngadto sa orihinal nga mithi sa Dios alang sa kalibutan.

4.      Makalibutanon (Cosmic): Nagapangita usab and espiritwalidad sa maayong relasyon ngadto sa kinaiyahan o palibot o sa tanang binuhat sa Dios.

B. Mga Elemento nga Kinahanglanon para sa Lay Spirituality:

1. CBCP Position Paper (PCP II no. 443)

Matud pa sa Position Paper sa CBCP sa okasyon sa Synod (Panagtigum) on the Laity niadtong 1987, ang mga mosunod nga mga elemento kinahanglanon sa Lay Spirituality:

1.1.A genuine love for and personal commitment to Jesus Christ

1.2.Love for the Church

1.3.Fidelity to Church’s teachings and respect for their pastors

1.4.Dedication to their families and to the apostolate of the family

1.5.Love for neighbor, especially the poor and those in need

1.6.Faith that does justice by dedicating themselves to the promotion of justice with involvement in the socio-economic problems of the society where they live

1.7.Regular reception of the sacraments and certain practices of devotion especially in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

2. Mga Sugyot  sa NCDP (PCP II no. 442)

Ang National Catechetical Directory of the Philippines nagasugyot nga ang Filipino Catholic Spirituality kinahanglan anaa ang mga mosunod:

1.      Respect the indigenous cultural aspect of a popular religiousity that has been purified and elevated to sound Christian devotion

2.      Include social concern for justice and the poor as an integral component

3.      Unify all dimensions of daily life – personal, families

4.      Stress the training of lay leaders to participate with clergy and religious in conducting retreats, recollections, etc

5.      Bring out the missionary consciousness indicative of the Philippine Church and its openness to Asian ways of prayer and mysticism that are consonant with authentic Christian worship

3. Secular Institutes (PCP II 444)

May mga layko nga para motubo sa ilang kinabuhing spiritwal ug makatabang sa pagbalaan sa kalibutan misalmot sa nga secular institutes. Diri sa Pilipinas, ang mga membro sa secular institutes naga-exercise og usa ka apostolate of presence. Kini sila makita diha sa:

1.       Field of education (sa schools, colleges ug universities)

2.      Field of health (isip doctors ug nurses)

3.      Sa mga opisina

4.      direct apostolate:

4.1.at the service of the local churches

4.2.as members of parish pastoral councils

4.3.as organizers of the social action apostolate

4.4.as retreat directors/directresses

4.5.as catechists or formators of catechists

5.      Third Orders of Religious Institutes (PCP II 445)

 

Ug ang uban usab misalmot sa mga Third Orders sa mga religious institutes. Kini nga mga Third Orders gitukod sa mga unang misyonero gikan niadtong panahon nga unang mitunob sila sa atong lugar. Nagapasalamat kita ngadto kanila (Third Orders) para sa Lay Spirituality.

Conclusion (PCP II 447):

Atong tapuson kining maong pamalandong pinaagi sa pagdayeg sa vision ni Pope John Paul II sa iyang encyclical letter nga Christifideles Laici no. 17 nga, of a countless number of people, both women and men, busy at work in their daily life and activity, oftentimes far from view and quite unacclaimed by the world, unknown to the world’s great personages but nonetheless looked upon in love by the Father, untiring laborers who work in the Lord’s vineyard. Confident and steadfast through the power of God’s grace, these are the humble yet great builders of the Kingdom of God in history.

Back to: New Modules for Training Laycos


Goal:

 

 

References:

1. Communications from the Bishop (No. 528, April 26, 2009)

2. Communications from the Bishop (No. 532, May 21, 2009)

3. Communications from the Bishop (No. 534, June 01, 2009)

4. Acts, Decrees and Plan of First Diocesan Pastoral Assembly (DPA-I) of the Diocese of Marbel (printed by Paghidaet Printing Press, Koronadal So. Cot 1996)

5. Forming the Filipino Social Conscience, 2nd edition by Vitaliano R. Gorospe, SJ (published by Society of St. Paul, Makati City, 1997 pp. 33-48; 185-189)

6.      Inflaming Justice, Peace and Joy (Basic Orientation Seminar Modules) by the Justice and Peace and Social Concerns Desk, Daughters of Charity of St. Paul (published by Daughters of Charity of St. Paul, Manila 1999 pp. 157-178)

7.      Peace with God, the Creator, Peace with all of Creation (Apostolic Exhortation of Pope John Paul II, 1990)

8.      Personal Notes on Creation Spirituality

9.      What is Happening to our Beautiful Land? (a pastoral letter of CBCP, 1988)

I. OPENING ACTIVITY: Web of Life

II. CONTENT OUTLINE:

A.    Understanding and Living in our Fragile Ecosystem

1.      Some Definition of Terms

2.      The Philippine Environment is Composed of 5 Major Ecosystems

3.      Scriptures tell us that there are Requirements for Creation’s Care and Keeping

B.     Spirituality of Creation

1.      How We View God, Nature, Self and Other Created Beings Affect our Way of Relating

2.      Our interconnectedness with the Earth Community is our only Hope for Continued Quality Life on this Planet

C.     Ecological Crisis: A Common Responsibility

1.      Activity

2.      The Ecological Crisis is a Common Responsibility

III. CONTENT EXPOSITION:

 

A. Situating the Participants:

 

April 22 is Earth Day. This was founded by Sen. Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin in 1970 to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth’s environment. Goal is healthy and sustainable environment. St. Francis of Assisi was born on April 22 (Communications from the Bishop….. no. 528 April 26, 2009).

But Bishop Dinualdo Gutierrez (Communications from the Bishop No. 532 dated May 21, 2009) received a report from Tampakan, South Cotabato which revealed that since January, 2005 Sagittarius Mines, Inc. (SMI) has felled trees and used the lumber for building construction, among others:

  • Landslides occurred since 2007
  • Pressurized water was used to dislodge stones containing precious metals
  • Experts from Diwalwal, Davao Norte were/are employed to dig for minerals
  • Explosives were used to facilitate exploration. Tremors were felt in nearby villages.
  • Toxic wastes, probably Mercury, were disposed indiscriminately, polluting streams  streams and rivers
  • Barks of trees were removed to cause their death. Muffled chainsaws cut down dead or dying trees. Sounds were heard only when the trees fell.
  • Much of Tampakan, however, is covered with old growth trees with some waterfalls. Much of Tampakan mountain remains trees fell.
  • Much of Tampakan mountain remains edenic!

 

 

Opening Activity: Web of Life (Habi ng Buhay)

The participants are divided into small groups. Each member of the group is given a piece of paper and a box of crayons.

Directions:

1.      Which part of nature would you like to be? (Fish, river, tree, mountain, etc.). Draw your choice on your paper.

2.      Make a very short story on how you feel as that part of nature you just drew. Imagine yourself threatened daily with death. Express your feelings. Be ready to share with the group.

3.      Share with the group

4.      After sharing: Form one circle. A participant starts by showing her/his picture and stands beside the one most related to him/her. When the circle is complete, link hands with one another and make a silent prayer for Creation.

B. Deepening and Purifying of Responses:

 

(Facilitator makes comments on the interconnection of all of Creation).

For Facilitators, tell the group that:

5.      Introduction: “What you have just formed is the “Chain of Life” which people broke when the integrity of Creation was destroyed by God’s creatures through neglect and abuse. What is God’s response to people’s irresponsibility towards God’s created image?……..”

6.      Reading: Gen 9:1-17  (Yahweh’s Covenant with Noah)

7.      Silent Reflection

8.      Community Response: The “Web of Life” (or Habi ng Buhay)

HABI NG BUHAY

(A Tagalog translation of Web of Life)

By Chief Seattle, Chief of the Dwamish Tribe

“Alam natin, hindi pag-aari ng tao ang daigdig, ang tao ay bahagi ng daigdig

Alam natin, na magkakaugnay ang lahat ng bagay,

tulad ng dugong nagbubuklod sa isang pamilya.

Anuman ang nangyayari sa daigdig, nangyayari sa mga anak ng daigdig.

Hindi nilalang ng tao ang labi ng buhay, isa lamang siyang hibla (strand, pisi) nito.

Anuman ang gawin sa habi, ginagawa niya sa kanyang sarili.”

 

IV. DOCTRINAL INPUT:

A. Proclamation of the Christian Message:

What kind of Philippine society must we create? According to:

1987 Philippine Constitution, it is our individual and collective task and responsibility to create a more just and fraternal society. And the Christian theology of creation is more relevant to this national task.

Second Plenary Council of the Philippines (PCP-II), the ideal society must be maka-tao (pro-human person), maka-bayan (pro-country) and maka-Dios (God-centered). We can add maka-buhay (pro-life) and maka-kalikasan (pro-environment).

The Vision of the Diocese of Marbel that, we hope for a liberated and integral society which is God-centered (maka-Dios), democratic (makatao), nationalistic (maka-bansa), just (makatarungan), respectful of human life (maka-buhay), and the integrity of creation (maka-kalikasan). This is the ideal Philippine country we together must create.

A. Understanding and Living in our Fragile Ecosystem:

 

1. Some Definition of Terms:

a. Environment – our immediate surroundings include: network of living and non-living things whose proper functioning depends on every human activity.

b. Ecology – “the science of the living environment concerned with population, community and ecosystem;” the study of the interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms with their environment.

c. Ecosystem or life – support Systems or Ecological System – the interaction or relationship of the community and the non-living environment.

d. Spirituality is an “energizing vision, a driving force”. It begins with an awareness which is translated into a way of being. On the one hand, it is “a specific way of being rooted with God…..on the other hand, it is a specific way of relating to the created world (Maloney 1992, p. 3).

e. Creation Spirituality is thus the awareness of the oneness of all creatures with God. It calls for a basic stance of respect and care for everyone. It seeks and strives for the fullness of life.

2. The Philippine Environment is Composed of 5 Major Ecosystems:

a. The Forest Ecosystem/Rain Forest: The Forest Communities include trees, bird species, rare wildlife such as Phil. Eagle (second largest in the world), tarsier (smallest deer in the world), tamaraw, Phil. Crocodile and monitor lizard. Its Uses are:

i. Upholds cycling and recycling of nutrients in the soil

ii. The roots of trees hold particles and water together reducing the incidence of run-off and sedimentation.

iii. Prevents quick evaporation of water thus maintaining the soil’s water-holding capacity.

iv. Protects watershed and serves as natural reservoir of water

v. Prevents flood

vi. Provides basic needs: food, building materials, raw materials for clothing and medicine

vii. Nurtured generations of indigenous Filipinos

viii. Considered as “dust traps” and “lungs of the world.”

Issues: rapid forest denudation/deforestation

Causes: indiscriminate logging; kaingin; mining activities; over grazing

Effects: soil erosion, silting of rivers and lakes, floods and droughts, clogging of irrigation; erratic weather condition; loss of biodiversity i.e. vanishing of wildlife, endangered species; impoverished Filipino cultural heritage

b.      The Marginal Lands and Croplands: Marginal Lands are converted forests, grasslands and barren areas; Croplands include agricultural lands, plantation lands and all arable lands and fishponds.

Use: basic life support system

Issue: food insecurity; GMOs

Causes: land conversion to: golf course, commercial centers and residential uses; mono-cropping like: banana, pineapple, etc. loss of soil fertility; excessive use of chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides.

Effects: reduced land fertility for food production; increased vulnerability to harmful diseases like cancer; soil erosion; side effects of chemicals to wildlife and marine ecosystem

c.       The Coastal Area/Marine Ecosystem/Freshwater Ecosystem: Freshwater Ecosystem like rivers, streams, lakes which serve as pathways of circulation of water in the planet; Mangroves is the foundation of for coastal fisheries by serving as a nursery ground for variety of fish, prawns, crabs etc; Coral Reefs serve as breeding and feeding ground of fish and other marine life; Sea grasses or grass-like flowering plants which thrives in muddy to sandy substrates. They important transition zones for fish, etc moving from coral reefs to mangrove areas; Marine Communities include fish, crabs, mollusks, squids, etc.

Uses: Freshwater – basic life support system; Mangroves – provide protection of coastline from soil erosion, etc; Coral Reefs storehouse of biodiversity and production, prevent coastal erosion and storm damage; Sea grasses – food source and habitat to commercially important species of fish and invertebrates

Issues: Pollution of freshwater ecosystem; depletion of mangroves; decimation of coral reefs; decline in fisheries yield

Causes: Industrial waste – toxic substances like: acids, alkalis, heavy metals, etc.; hazardous substances like: asbestos oil, grease, fertilizers and pesticides, etc from domestic use; extensive cutting of trees;  siltation of seabeds and lakes; destruction of mangroves for fuel and charcoal; destruction of corals caused by siltation, etc; destructive fishing like dynamite, cyanide, poisoning, muro-ami, etc.

d. Air, Atmosphere and Climate: Issues: Air Pollution; Greenhouse Effect; Global Warming; Destruction of Ozone layer; Acid rain

Issues: Greenhouse Effect – Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to continued burning of fossil fuels. And so increase earth temperature, snow melting, sea rise, climate change; Global warming – due to greenhouse effect; Main Greenhouse Gases: 1) Carbon dioxide (CO2) –mostly from burning fossil fuels like: oil, gas, and coal for electricity and from cars and factories; also from forest burning, 2) Methane (CH4) –from bacterial decomposition of organic matter and intestines of cows and sheep, also from burning wood and mining cool, 3) Chloroflourocarbons (CFC5) – chemically synthesized for use as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners, also from foam insulation, aerosol sprays, 4)Nitrous Oxide ((N2O) – bacterial reactions in soil and water from the breakdown of nitrogen-based chemical fertilizers, also from burning fossil fuels and deforestation, 5) Surface Ozone (O) – about 75% of surface ozone results from photo-chemical reaction of sunlight on vehicle pollutants; Ozone Layer – in stratosphere which provides a protective screen  which keeps out the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation, continued depletion of ozone layer results into increase of ultraviolet radiation leading to: skin cancers and cataracts, overall growth and field of agri-products reduced, affect fish supplies; Acid Rain – refers to all types of precipitation like: rain, snow, sleet, hail, fog that is acidic in nature.  It is produced as industrial by-products in emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides from burning coal and petroleum products, acid rain kills aquatic life, trees, crops and other vegetation, damages buildings and monuments, cars, corrodes copper and lead piping, reduces soil fertility and can cause toxic metals into underground drinking water sources.

e.       Minerals Ecosystem: most depleted minerals in the Philippines: copper, gold, iron and chromium. The Mining Act of 1995 liberalized mining industry and dismantled restrictions to foreign investments. It is expected to increase the number of landless poor Filipinos.

Causes: extraction and processing of mineral ores; improper disposal of mine tailings and waste; improper use of mercury during gold smelting; sand and gravel quarrying

Effects: pollution; mine effluents placed in retaining areas like ponds and dams are washed away by rains and eventually find their way into river systems, sources of drinking water.

 

B. Spirituality of Creation

1. How We View God, Nature, Self and Other Created Beings Affect our Way of Relating:

a. Everything that God created was good. The opening passage of the Bible proclaims: “In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless wasteland and darkness covered the abyss, while a mighty wind swept over waters,” (Gen 1:1). Creation is God’s expression of His goodness. From void and chaos, God created something beautiful. God then proclaimed: “It is good,” (Gen 1:10). Thus the reality in which we and the rest of nature find ourselves in is not the product of our work. It is God’s work.

b. In a covenantal relationship, we are called to create and recreate the world as we stand in reverence of God and our fellow creatures. Each of creation has a part to fulfill in God’s plan. For us, human beings, God willed that we enter into a covenantal relationship with the rest of creation. God is the owner of the world. It is only entrusted to us to be used in a manner that respects each creature’s inherent value and dignity and to care for it so that future generations can share in its bounty.

 

c. Scriptures tell us that there are Requirements for Creation’s Care and Keeping (Scherff 1991, pp 263-265).

 

a.       Old Testament:

i.      Acknowledge God as owner of all the earth (Gen 1-2, Ps 24:1-2, Ex 9:29, Job 41:11, Lev 25:23)

ii.      Keep and preserve earth as God keeps us (Gen 2:15, Ex 15:26, Ex 20:6, Num 6:24, Ps 121:7, Deut 17:18-19)

iii.      Give the people, the land and the creatures their Sabbath rest (Ex 23:10-11, Lev 23:P3-22)

iv.      Respect earth when participating in its blessings (Ezek 34:18-19)

v.      Confess to God our abuses of earth (Prov  28:13-14)

vi.      Save the creatures from extinction (Gen 6:11, 9:17)

b.      New Testament:

i.      Acknowledge God as owner of all the earth (Heb 1:10, 1Cor 10:26)

ii.      Christ is the example of sinless dominion and rulership (1John 1:8, 10; Heb 4:15, 7:26-28; Col 1:15-20; Phil 2:1-7; John 3:16)

 

 

d. Three environmentalist-theologians present different images:

 

a. Sallie McFague (Models of God: Theology for an Ecological, Nuclear Age): Earth should be seen as God’s body. This implies God’s deep involvement, consciousness, awareness and empathy with the Earth. God responds to the Earth just as we respond to our bodies.

b. Thomas Berry (The Dream of the Earth): The Earth is a Community: minerals, plants, animals and human beings. All express the image of God and the life of God among us. The Earth has a story and it should be told with a feel for its music. A joyful human consciousness of the Earth must be the stance of human beings. People must get in touch with the earth which will in turn reawaken a sense of the sacred in the world, of God present in us and in the ongoing process of creation.

c. Loren Wilkinson (Earthkeeping: Christian Stewardship of Natural Resources): Where is God? God is transcendental and as such is separate from creatures. But God, while not part of creation, affirms it is good. God is also incarnate through Jesus and is therefore part of creation. Our uniqueness as human beings does not rest so much on our freewill and reason but on our accountability with God. The final goal is reestablishment of harmony between God and nature and between human beings and the Earth.

 

e. (Message of Creation Spirituality)(from “Creation Spirituality: The Message and the Movement” by Rosemary Radford Ruether, originally published in the November/December 1990 issue of Creation Spirituality magazine)

 

1. Creation Spirituality regains the understanding that our original and true nature, the original and true nature of all things, is “very good.”

2. Creation Spirituality, while exemplified in one line of Christianity, is truly as old as creation. It is found in all the great mystical traditions of Hasidic Judaism, Sufism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. It is even more fully expressed in the nature religions of Native peoples that have been conquered and almost exterminated by patriarchal dualistic religions. Creation Sprituality calls for a “deep ecumenism” which brings together these traditions of Creation Spirituality from every culture.

3. Creation Spirituality seeks a wholistic spirituality that overcomes the dualism between religion and science, between spirituality and social justice and between psyche and society. It is a justice-seeking spirituality.

4. Creation Spirituality is naturally allied with liberation theologies and the struggles for justice in Latin America, Asia and Africa against colonialism. The tragedies of abusive relations in our own society: the abuse of the young, of women and of the poor, the gross expenditure of wealth, of militarism: all this is part of the story of a patriarchal alienation of human and planetary life.

f. (Ten principles of Creation Spirituality)

a. The universe is basically a blessing, that is, something we experience as good.

b. We can and do relate to the universe as a whole since we are a microcosm of that macrocosm and that this relationship “intoxicates” us. (Aquinas)

c. Everyone is a mystic (i.e., born full of wonder and capable of recovering it at any age; of not taking the awe and wonder of existence for granted.)

d. Everyone is a prophet, i.e., a “mystic in action” (Hocking) who is called to “interfere” (Heschel) with what interrupts authentic life.

e. That humans have to dig and work at finding their deep self, their true self, their spirit self; thus the role of spiritual praxis and meditation and community confrontation. If we do not undergo such praxis we live superficially out of fear or greed or addiction or someone else’s expectations of us. That salvation is best understood as “preserving the good,” (Aquinas).

f. That the journey that marks that digging can be named as a
four-fold journey:

i. Via Positiva: delight, awe, wonder, revelry

ii. Via Negativa: darkness, silence, suffering, letting go

iii. Via Creativa: birthing, creativity

iv. Via Transformativa: compassion, justice healing, celebration

g. Everyone is an artist in some way and art as meditation is a primary form of prayer for releasing our images and empowering the community and each of us. Art finds its fulfillment in ritual, the community’s art.

h. We are all sons and daughters of God; therefore, we have divine blood our vein, the divine breath in our lungs; and the basic work of God is: Compassion.

i. Divinity is as much Mother as Father, as much Child as Parent, as much Godhead (mystery) as God (history) as much beyond all beings as in all beings.

j. That we experience that the Divine is in all things and all things are in the Divine.

 

2. Our interconnectedness with the Earth Community is our only Hope for Continued Quality Life on this Planet:

We reconnect with the relationship of reason and intuition, consciousness and embodiment, therefore, ourselves and others-humans with animals and plants and other created things.

Creation Spirituality unleashes vitality, creativity and playfulness. It is generous, mutually affirming of diversity, and non-competitive. Unlike fall-redemption spirituality, it does not set up competitive dualisms between males and females, celibate and married, heterosexual and homosexual, white and black, Christian and non-Christian, us and them. It is egalitarian and pluralistic, rejoicing in the manyness of beings that interconnect in a rich cosmic community. It allows us to lay aside our defenses, our needs to control, dominate and destroy the other. It is the spirituality that is needed for an ecological, peacemaking and just world community.

a. Proclaimed by Different Persons:

  • St. Paul: “Christ is the center of creation,” (Col 1:16-17).
  • John Paul II (1990-Peace with God, the Creator, Peace with all of Creation): “The peace of the earth can only be understood if we understand that the earth is a single community composed of all its geological and human components. The peace of the earth is indivisible.”
  • John Paul II (1990): “Human race has plundered the earth in the name of development.”
  • “God destined the earth and all its contains for the use of every individual and all peoples,” (John Paul II, 1990).
  • The ecological crisis is a moral issue (John Paul II, 1990)
  • CBCP (1988): “Our ancestors and tribal sisters and brothers today still attempt to live in harmony with the world, a reminder that an exploitative approach to the natural world is foreign to our Filipino culture.”
  • CBCP (1988): “Destruction of any part of creation defaces the image of Christ etched in creation.”
  • “Mary as the Mother of life, challenges us to abandon the pathways of death and to return to the way of life,” (CBCP, 1988).

C. Ecological Crisis: A Common Responsibility:

 

1. Activity: Reading of “Iniyakan ng Diyos ang Kanyang Nilikha.

 

INIYAKAN NG DIYOS ANG KANYANG NILIKHA

Sa pasimula pa’y naroon na ang Daigdig. At ito’y napakaganda. Naninirahan ang tao sa Daigdig na ito, at sinabi niya: “Gumawa tayo ng mga matataas na gusaling abot-langit at ng mga malalawak na kalsada.” At tinabunan ng tao ang mukha ng daigdig ng bakal at semento. At lubos siyang nasiyahan ng pagmasdan ito.

 

Sa pangalawang araw, pinagmasdan ng tao ang malinis at bughaw na karagatan. At sinabi ng tao: “Itapon natin ang ating mga basura at gawing tambakan ang tubig.” At ginawa nga niya. Ang tubig sa dagat ay naging itim. At lubos siyang nasiyahan.

 

Sa ikatlong araw, napatingin ang tao sa kagubatan. Matataas at luntian ang mga puno. At sinabi ng tao: “Putulin natin ang mga punong-kahoy at gamitin natin para sa ating sarili.” At ginawa nga niya. At lubos siyang nasiyahan.

 

Sa ikaapat na araw, nakita ng tao ang mga hayop na naglalaro sa parang. At sinabi ng tao: “Hulihin natin ang mga hayop at ipagbili at mamaril tayo para sa katuwaan.” At ginawa nga ng tao. At ang mga hayop ay naging madalang. At lubos na nasiyahan ang tao.

 

Sa ikalimang araw, nararamdaman ng tao ang malamig na simoy ng hangin sa kanyang hininga. At sinabi niya: “Sunugin natin ang ating mga basura at hayaang ikalat ng hangin ang usok at abo nito.” Ganoon nga ang kaniyang ginawa. At lubos siyang nasiyahan.

 

Sa ikaanim na araw, napansin ng tao ang maraming tao sa daigdig: iba’t-ibang lahi, kulay at pananampalataya. At sinabi ng tao: “Lumikha tayo ng isang diyos ayon sa ating larawan. Ang ating kamumuhian, kamumuhian niya; sa ating pagpatay, papatay din siya. Gumawa tayo ng mga bomba at misil baka sakaling magkaroon ng di-pagkakaunawaan.” At ginawa nga niya. At ang mga pabrika ng bomba at misil ay siyang nagiging tanawin. At lubos ang taong nasiyahan.

 

Sa ikapitong araw, namahinga ang tao. Biglang may malakas na ingay sa balat ng lupa. Nilamon ng apoy ang dating magandang daigdig. At naghari ang katahimikan. Ang nangingitim na daigdig ay namahinga upang sambahin ang iisang tunay na Diyos. At ang lahat ng mga itong ginawa ng tao ay kanyang nasaksihan. Sa nakabinging katahimikan, sa umuusok na guho at labi ng kabihasnan, umiyak ang Diyos.

2. The Ecological Crisis is a Common Responsibility:

 

a.       All of us contribute to the gradual decay of our surroundings. The earth is becoming increasingly uninhabitable.

b.      The threat of ecological breakdown teaches us the extent to which greed and selfishness are contrary to the order of creation which is characterized by mutual interdependence (John Paul II, 1990).

c.       The earth has been entrusted to humanity – the goods of the earth are for all. This is not just an ethical principle but a vocation and a task that must be carried out if the earth is really belong to all.

d.      Christians realize that their responsibility within creation and their duty towards nature and the Creator are an essential part of their faith. As a result, they are conscious of ecumenical and interreligious cooperation needed for this gigantic task.

V. CHALLENGE:

A. Know the Principles Governing the Environment:

 

Father Thomas Berry, CP, a geologist, mentions Four Principles that govern the universe:

1)      Communion. The universe is a communion of subjects not merely a collection of objects. Subjects have rights. Objects do not. All creatures of God have the fundamental right to exist. Humans should respect this right.

2)      Interconnectedness. All beings are related to each other. We are all creatures. We come from the same source: God the Creator. Thus, we have a kinship with every being.

3)      Differentiation. Every being is different. Each is unique. When a species ceases to exist, our cosmos, our planet earth becomes impoverished.

4)      Innerness. Every being has an inner, psychic dimension besides the physical one. Living beings have souls, principles of life. Humans have spiritual/intelligent soul; animals, sentient; and plants, vegetative. Non-living organisms have innate energy, power and capability.

 

Besides these Four, there are three other Principles that guide human decisions and actions:

5)      Anthropic Principle. Christian asthrophycisists maintain that God created the Universe in such wise as to make it “habitable” to human beings. And to life, in general.

6)      Precautionary Principle. A moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public or the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that harm would not ensure, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the action. Earth Summit. Rio de Janiero 1992v makes this primary principle. This is a general and compulsory law in the European Union.

7)      Intergenerational Equity. “It is a value concept which focuses on the rights of future generations.” (Earth and Peace Education Associates International, 2003). “Each generation has the right to inherit the same diversity in natural and cultural resources enjoyed by previous generations and to equitable access to the use and benefits of these resources,” (Id.). “In this way, intergenerational equity extends the scope of social justice into the future.”

B. According to the Bishops (CBCP, 1988):

 

1)      As Individuals:

a.       Be aware of what is happening in your area

b.      Do not remain silent when you see your environment being destroyed

c.       Use your influence within your family and community to develop this awareness. Become involved in some concrete actions.

d.      Organize people around ecological issues

e.       Support public officials who are sensitive to environmental issues.

2)      As a Church:

a.       Stress the “theology of creation/spirituality/integrity” through preaching and catechetical programs.

b.      Celebrate the beauty and pains of the world through different liturgies

c.       Struggle for social justice

d.      Set up the care for the Earth Ministry to formulate and implement policies and strategies based on the new and wider vision.

e.       Catholic schools: to give special importance to the theme of peace, justice and the integrity of creation in the curriculum.

3)      As a Government:

a.       Each Department should promote awareness of the islands’ ecosystem and advocate measures for ecologically sustainable development

b.      Encourage research into the ecosystems and the problems they face in the future.

c.       Publish a state of the environment report per region and the country as a whole each year.

C. Suggested Lines of Action:

 

1)      The Forest Ecosystem/Rain Forests:

  • Plant trees in your communities
  • Plant fruit and nut trees in your backyard
  • Don’t buy products made from tropical hardwoods
  • Do not burn leaves and cuttings from plants. Make a mulch pile instead
  • Use cloths instead of paper: paper napkins, paper towels, tissues, diapers
  • Use both sides of paper sheets
  • Reuse shopping bags: Bring one when you go shopping
  • Avoid disposable plates, cups and utensils especially Styrofoam/plastics
  • Buy a living Christmas tree

2)      The Marginal Lands/Croplands:

  • Do not buy fruit and vegetables out of season
  • Remember, the prettier an item looks, the more likely it is to contain chemicals
  • Eat more vegetables, fruits and grains; decrease consumption of meat and animal products
  • Grow a garden and use either no chemicals or organic chemicals
  • Buy food grown or produced locally
  • Buy foods without additives and preservatives
  • Do not eat in fast food restaurants where food is served in CFC-containing Styrofoam.

3)      The Coastal Areas/Marine Ecosystem

  • Pour unconsumed drinking water on grass or on potted plants
  • Water plants and lawn in the morning to minimize evaporation
  • Plant drought-tolerant plants
  • Turn off water between rinses, when shaving and when brushing teeth
  • Use broom rather than hose to wash walkways
  • Wash your car with bucket not with hose
  • Do not buy products that are the results of species slaughter like shrimp, tortoise shell, tuna and any product such as ivory of an endangered species
  • Gather information on toxic dumping into rivers, estuaries and other sources of water
  • Find out what industries are dumping poisons and alert local officials and/or NGOs
  • Be involved in campaigns against dynamite fishing, cutting of mangroves for firewood, coral reef destruction

4)      Air, Atmosphere and Climate

  • Keep your home clean and chemical free. Do not use any chemical for spraying insects, plants, etc. do not use moth balls, air fresheners, synthetic detergents, etc.
  • Use fluorescent in place of incandescent light bulb.
  • Turn off lights and appliances when not in use
  • Hang clothes in the sun to dry
  • Use public transportation, carpool, bike or walk
  • Avoid drive-through lanes where your car engine will remain idle for long
  • When purchasing a car, consider one without air-conditioning to avoid using CFCs. A light-colored model with a white interior can help keep temperature down.

5)      Minerals

  • Be active in the campaign against mining

6)      Others

  • Be informed. Gather information/data on ecological issues
  • Join groups that are active in the preservation of the Earth

D. A Concrete Action for Ecological Waste Management/Zero Waste Management:

 

1)      There are Two Kinds of Waste:

a.       Biodegradable – compostables like: kitchen waste, garden waste, animal waste and human waste

b.      Non-biodegradable – non-compostables like: bottles, tin cans, rubber, Styrofoam, fibers, feather, plastics, etc.

2)      Key Steps in Zero Waste Manamgement

a.       Sort at the source

  • Sort wet from dry garbage, i.e. separate wet garbage that cannot be eaten by animals

b.      Package properly

  • Reuse dry goods. Making new paper from old papers uses 60% less energy, reduces air pollution by 95% and saves trees. The trees we save benefit us in return we save benefit us in return by cleaning the air, providing oxygen, holding soil, being an important part of water cycles, providing fruits, shade, beauty and home for our animals that are part of our food cycles
  • Dispose ecologically through proper composting. HOW of composting: 1. Sort, 2. Do not burn, 3. Moisten/wet, 4. Layer with soil, 5. Aerate/ventilate

 

3)      Recycling and using recycled products, as well as composing are most simple yet significant things we can do to live in a sustainable manner on earth. No burning… no dumping…. TOTAL RECYCLING. ZERO WASTE

E. Psalm 104 is Prayed to end the Session

 

 

Prepared by: Fr. Joseph S. Benitez

June 5, 2009

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